Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Fort Wayne, Indiana
|City nickname: "The Summit City"|
Location in the state of Indiana
|County||Allen County, Indiana|
127 km^2 (78.95 mi²)
0.4 km² (0.2 mi²) 0.21%
|Time zone||Eastern: UTC-5|
Fort Wayne is a city and the county seat of Allen County in northeastern Indiana. As of the 2000 census, as recertified in June 2003, the city had a total population of 220,486. It is named after a U.S. military fort established in 1794 by Gen. Anthony Wayne where the St. Joseph River and St. Marys River join to form the Maumee River.
Historically the site was known as Kekionga, the traditional capital of the Miami nation. In the 1680s, French traders established a trading post at the location because it was the main portage between the Great Lakes via the Maumee River and the Mississippi River via the nearby Little River branch of the Wabash River.
Increasing tension between France and Britain developed over the territory. In 1760, after defeat by British forces in the French and Indian War, the area was ceded to the British Empire. The fort was renamed "Fort Miami."
In 1763, various Native American nations rebelled against British rule and retook the fort as part of Pontiac's Rebellion. The Miami regained control of Kekionga, a rule that lasted for more than 30 years.
In 1794, under the command of General Anthony Wayne, the United States army captured the Wabash-Erie portage from the Miami and built a new fort near the three rivers. Fort Wayne was named for the general.
Eventually, the portage was replaced by a canal in the mid 1800s. Fort Wayne's significance as a waterway portage lost national prominence as the railroad system developed in the United States. For nearly a century it was an important railroad center between New York and Chicago.
Most of the population growth occurred in the 19th century with immigration from Germany and Ireland. The large numbers of Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches reflect this. German-language newspapers were published into the 20th century.
Law and government
Executive - Mayor
Democrat Sandra Kennedy has been Fort Wayne's city clerk since 1983.
Representatives - Common Council
The Fort Wayne Common Council is a nine-member legislative group that serve four-year terms. Six of the members represent specific districts; three are elected city-wide as at-large council members. The council elected on November 4, 2003 will serve until December 31, 2007:
- John N. Crawford: At-Large, Republican
- Samuel J. Talarico, Jr: At-Large, Republican
- John Shoaff: At-Large, Democrat
- Tom Smith: 1st District, Republican
- Donald J. Schmidt: 2nd District, Republican
- Tom Didier: 3rd District, Republican
- Thomas E. Hayhurst: 4th District, Democrat
- Tim Pape: 5th District, Democrat
- Glynn A. Hines: 6th District, Democrat
Modern Fort Wayne is set in a productive agricultural area, but has always been an important transportation hub. Founded at the confluence of three rivers, the city was the summit of the Wabash-Erie Canal. Fort Wayne also site at the high point between two Indiana watersheds; hence its nickname, "Summit City."
Even for a regional "summit," Fort Wayne is fairly flat. There are some local wetlands and gravel pits. The soil is the deep dark brown earth characteristic of the Midwest.
Fort Wayne's first park, the 0.2 acre (800 m²) Old Fort Park, was established in 1863. The newest park, the 170 acre (690,000 m²) Salomon Farm Park, was established in 1995. As of 2004, the city had 87 parks covering 2,199.55 acres (8.9 km²). Other parks include:
- Bucknet Farm Park
- East Swinney
- Foellinger-Freimann Botanical Conservatory
- Foster Park
- Franke Park, the city's largest at 316.4 acres (1.3 km²), home to the zoo
- Freimann Square
- Historic Old Fort
- Hurshtown Reservoir
- Japanese Garden
- Johnny Appleseed Park, gravesite of Johnny Appleseed
- Lakeside Park
- Lindenwood Nature Preserve
- Little Turtle Memorial
- Shoaff Park
In the mid-20th century, Fort Wayne was a major manufacturing center of the northeastern United States. Major employers included General Electric, International Harvester, and Tokheim gasoline pumps. Phelps Dodge, Rea Wire, and Essex Wire comprised the largest concentration of copper and enamel wire manufacturing in the world. In the latter half of the 20th century, shifts in manufacturing patterns resulted in a reduction of the importance of manufacturing to the city economy, and Fort Wayne could be counted among the relatively stagnant "rust belt" cities of the northeast.
In recent decades growth based on a more diverse economy has resumed.
As of the census2 of 2000, there were 205,727 people, 83,333 households, and 50,666 families residing in the city. There are 90,915 housing units at an average density of 444.6/km² (1,151.5/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 75.45% White, 17.38% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 1.56% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.91% from other races, and 2.26% from two or more races. 5.78% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 83,333 households out of which 31.5% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% are married couples living together, 14.6% have a female householder with no husband present, and 39.2% are non-families. 32.6% of all households are made up of individuals and 10.3% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.41 and the average family size is 3.08.
In the city the population is spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 33 years. For every 100 females there are 94.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 90.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $36,518, and the median income for a family is $45,040. Males have a median income of $34,704 versus $25,062 for females. The per capita income for the city is $18,517. 12.5% of the population and 9.6% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 17.5% of those under the age of 18 and 7.6% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
In 2003, the Census Bureau revised the population of Fort Wayne upward to 220,486 to reflect neighborhood annexation after 2000.
- Ink weekly African American newspaper
- Fort Wayne Journal Gazette , daily morning newspaper
- Fort Wayne News-Sentinel , daily evening newspaper owned by Knight Ridder
- Frost Illustrated , weekly African American newspaper
- Macedonian Tribune, monthly Macedonian newspaper.
Fort Wayne is the 105th-largest television market in the United States according to Nielsen Media Research.
- WANE-TV, CBS affiliate, - NTSC channel 15, DT channel 31
- WFFT-TV, Fox affiliate - NTSC channel 55, DT channel 36
- WFWA-TV, PBS affiliate - NTSC channel 39, DT channel 40
- WFWC-CA, Independent - NTSC channel 45, DT channel 45
- WINM-TV, TBN affiliate - NTSC channel 63, DT channel 12
- WISE-TV, NBC Affiliate - NTSC channel 33, DT channel 19
- WPTA-TV, ABC affiliate - NTSC channel 21, DT channel 24
Sites of interest
Architecture of note
- Allen County Courthouse, 700 block of South Clinton Street, government building, by Brentwood S. Tolan, 1897-1902
- Anthony Wayne Bank Building, 203 East Berry Street, commercial high-rise, 1960
- Commerce Building, 127 West Berry Street, beux arts high rise, 1923
- Crooks House, residence, by postmodernist architect Michael Graves, 1976
- Fine Arts Center, School and Performing Arts Theater, theatre, by L. I. Kahn, 1966-1973
- Fort Wayne National Bank Building (National City Bank), skyscraper, 1970
- Old City Hall, government building, 1893
- J. B. Franke House, residence, 1914
- Hanselmann House, residence, by postmodernist architect Michael Graves, 1967
- One Summit Square (Bank One), skyscraper, 1981
- Richardville House, residence, 1827
- Haus der Schönen Künste - Fine Arts Center, museum, by L. I. Kahn , 1961-1964
- Lincoln Bank Tower, 116 East Berry Street, skyscraper, by Alvin M. Strauss, 1929
- Snyderman House, residence, by postmodernist architect Michael Graves, 1972
- Concordia Theological Seminary of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod
- Fort Wayne Center for Medical Education (a branch of Indiana University School of Medicine)
- Indiana Institute of Technology (IIT)
- Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne (IPFW)
- Ivy Tech State College
- Taylor University Fort Wayne
- University of Saint Francis
- Fort Wayne Fever , minor league men's and women's soccer
- Fort Wayne Freedom , indoor football (National Indoor Football League)
- Fort Wayne Komets, ice hockey (United Hockey League)
- Fort Wayne Wizards, minor league baseball
Former sports teams
- Fort Wayne Daisies , All-American Girls Professional Baseball League
- Fort Wayne Friars , football
- Fort Wayne Fury , Continental Basketball Association
- Fort Wayne General Electrics , NBA basketball (1937-1938)
- Fort Wayne Kekiongas , major league baseball
- Fort Wayne Pistons, NBA basketball (1941-1957)
- Fort Wayne River City Rhinos , Mid-Continental Football League
Notable natives and former residents
- Julia Barr, actress, All My Children
- DaMarcus Beasley, professional soccer player for PSV Eindhoven (Netherlands) and the US national team
- Bill Blass, fashion designer
- Eric Bruskotter , actor, Starship Troopers, Six Feet Under
- Andrew George Burry, industrialist
- Dan Butler, actor Frasier
- Daniel R. Coats, U.S. ambassador to Germany, former U.S. representative, U.S. senator
- Philo T. Farnsworth, inventor
- Sharon Gabet , actress, One Life to Life
- Edith Hamilton, author
- Drake Hogestyn, actor Days of Our Lives
- Stephen King, author
- Neil LaBute, director
- Ross Lockridge, Jr., author, Raintree County
- Carole Lombard, actress, My Man Godfrey
- Shelley Long, actress, Cheers
- Hugh McCulloch, former United States Secretary of the Treasury, namesake of McCulloch Park
- Patrick McVey , actor, Dark Shadows, North by Northwest
- Gray Morrow, comic book artist and illustrator
- Amanda Perez , R&B singer
- Robert Rusler , actor, Babylon 5, Weird Science
- Mark Souder, U.S. Representative
- Dave Thomas, founder of Wendy's restaurant chain
- Randy Thompson , actor, Buffy the Vampire Slayer
- Rod Woodson, athlete, NFL Oakland Raiders
- Herb Vigran, actor, White Christmas, The Flintstones, Benji
- Dick York, actor, Bewitched
Film/TV shot in Fort Wayne
\ American reel
The Last Roadstop
Famous fictional characters from Fort Wayne
- Frank Burns, fictional doctor, M*A*S*H
- Fawn Liebowitz, fictional character, Animal House
- George Taylor, fictional character, Planet of the Apes
Fory Wayne has three sister cities:
- Official city web page
- 2003 Census adjustment
- The Journal Gazette daily morning newspaper
- News-Sentinel daily afternoon newspaper
- Fort Wayne Reader entertainment periodical
- Chamber of Commerce
- Convention and Visitor's Bureau
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