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Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who is also referred to as Francis von Habsburg or Emperor Franz I of Austria (February 12, 1768 – March 2, 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until August 6, 1806, when the Empire was disbanded. He was also Francis I, first Emperor of Austria (ruling from 1804 to 1835).
As the leader of a large multi-ethnic nation, Francis felt threatened by Napoleon's call for liberty and equality in Europe. Francis had a rocky relationship with France. His aunt Marie Antoinette died under the guillotine at the beginning of his reign. Later, he led Austria into the French Revolutionary Wars and was defeated by Napoleon. By the Treaty of Campo Formio, he ceded the left bank of the Rhine to France in exchange for Venice and Dalmatia. He again fought against France during the Second Coalition, and, after meeting crushing defeat at Austerlitz, agreed to the Treaty of Lunéville, which dissolved the Holy Roman Empire, weakening Austria and decentralizing Germany.
In 1809, Francis attacked France again, hoping to take advantage of the conflict embroiling Napoleon in Spain. He was again defeated, and this time forced to ally himself with Napoleon, ceding territory to the Empire, joining the Continental System, and wedding his daughter Marie-Louise to the Emperor. Francis essentially became a vassal of the Emperor of France. The Napoleonic wars drastically weakened Austria and reduced its prestige, which would lead to Prussia's acquiring the edge in the contest for dominance of Germany.
In 1813, for the fourth and final time, Austria turned against France and joined England, Russia, and Prussia in their war against Napoleon. Austria played a major role in the final defeat of France—in recognition of this, Francis, represented by Clemens von Metternich, presided over the Congress of Vienna, helping to form the Concert of Europe and the Holy Alliance, ushering in an era of conservatism and reactionism in Europe.
He married four times:
- January 6, 1788, to Elisabeth of Württemberg (April 21, 1767 – February 18, 1790), who died bearing a short-lived daughter, Ludovika (1790-1791)
- August 15, 1790, to his first cousin Maria Theresa of the Two Sicilies (June 6, 1772 – April 13, 1807), with whom he had twelve children, including his successor Ferdinand I, the French Empress Marie-Louise and the Brazilian later Portugese Empress Maria Leopoldina, Archduchess of Austria.
- January 6, 1808, again to another first cousin Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este (December 14, 1787 – April 7, 1816) with no issue
- October 29, 1816, to Karoline Charlotte Auguste of Bavaria (February 8, 1792 – February 9, 1873) with no issue
Names in other languages: German: Franz II/I, Czech: František I, Slovak: František I, Hungarian: I. Ferenc, Italian: Francesco II/I
|width="30%" align="center" rowspan="4"|Preceded by:
Leopold II |width="40%" align="center"|Holy Roman Emperor
1792-1806 |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="2"|Succeeded by:
— |- |width="40%" align="center"|Archduke of Austria
1792-1804 |- |width="40%" align="center"|King of Hungary
1792-1835 |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="3"|Succeeded by:
Ferdinand I |- |width="40%" align="center"|King of Bohemia
1792-1835 |- |width="30%" align="center"|— |width="40%" align="center"|Emperor of Austria
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