Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The French Open, officially the Tournoi de Roland-Garros (English: Roland Garros Tournament), is a tennis event held from the middle of May to the beginning of June in Paris, France, and is the second of the world's Grand Slam tournaments.
The French Open began as a national tournament in 1891. In 1925, the French Championships opened itself to international competitors with the event held on a grass surface alternatively between the Racing Club de France and the Stade Franįais. For the 1928 Davis Cup challenge, a new tennis stadium was built at Porte dAuteuil. Named for a hero of World War I, the new Stade Roland Garros was built with a red clay (terre battue ) playing surface, one which alters the ball's bounce and the player's approach to the match vis-ā-vis grass courts. As such, over the years, clay court specialists have evolved who often succeed here whilst higher ranked players may struggle like the great champion Pete Sampras who won every other Grand Slam several times but never the French Open.
In 1968 the French championship became the first Grand Slam tournament to go "open," allowing both amateurs and professionals to compete.
Men's record holders for most wins since 1925:
- All competitions: Henri Cochet (France), 9 titles (4 singles, 3 doubles, 2 mixed doubles titles)
- Singles: Björn Borg (Sweden), 6
- Consecutive singles titles: Björn Borg, 4
- Doubles: Roy Emerson (Australia), 6
Ladies' record holders for most wins since 1925:
- All competitions: Margaret Smith Court (Australia), 13 (5 singles, 4 doubles, 4 mixed doubles titles)
- Singles: Chris Evert (USA), 7; Steffi Graf (Germany), 6
- Consecutive singles titles: Helen Wills Moody (USA), Hilde Sperling (Germany) and Monica Seles (Yugoslavia), 3
- Doubles: Martina Navratilova (Czechoslovakia/USA), 7
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