Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Frombork is a town in northern Poland, situated on Vistula Bay in the Warmia i Mazury voivodship with a population of 2700 (in 2000). Frombork was meticulously re-created after its destruction during World War II and is now a well-known tourist attraction.
Frauenburg was founded around 1278, and was first described by Gerko Fleming (Henry Fleminga), the bishop who moved his see there after the destruction of his cathedral in Braunsberg, Prussia.
In 1310, the town was granted rights under the Luebeck Law by Bishop Eberhard of Neisse. Between 1329 and 1388 its magnificent Gothic cathedral was built and dedicated to Our Lady ("Domina Nostra", "Unsere Frau"; hence "Frauenburg"; "Fromborg").
Through the centuries the cathedral has been expanded and rebuilt several times. There are several other historic churches, including those dedicated to St. Nicolas, St George and St. Anna, all built in the 13th century.
In the Middle Ages, the inhabitants of Frauenburg (Fromborg) were mainly merchants, farmers and fishers.
Between 1466 and 1772 Frauenburg (Frombork) was an important city of the Prince Bishopric of Warmia, in Prussia. In 1772 the area came under the domination of the King of Prussia, and remained a part of Prussia (later Germany) until 1945.
The Prussian historian Christoph Hartknoch of Thorn features Frauenburg (Frombork) in his Altes und Neues Preussen; see external link below.
Perhaps the most famous resident of the town was Nicolaus Copernicus, who lived in Frauenburg (now Frombork) from 1512 to 1516 and again from 1522 to 1543. He also died there and was buried in the cathedral, where his burial place may still be seen. His astronomical observatory, work room, equipment, and planetarium are on display at Frombork's Nikolaus Copernicus Museum.
A Copernicus monument built by the German Emperor Wilhelm II was destroyed and replaced in the mid-1950s.
A memorial rock was put in place in 2001 and blessed by Archbishop Dr. Edmund Piszcz. The text of the plaque attached to it honors, in both German and Polish, the many World War II refugees who died in this area, or were driven from it, in the first months of 1945.
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