Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Finitely generated abelian group
- x = n1x1 + n2x2 + ... + nsxs
Clearly, every finite abelian group is finitely generated. The finitely generated abelian groups are of a rather simple structure and can be completely classified, as will be explained below.
- the integers (Z,+) are a finitely generated abelian group
- the integers modulo n Zn are a finitely generated abelian group
- any direct sum of finitely many finitely generated abelian groups is again finitely generated abelian
There are no other examples. The group (Q,+) of rational numbers is not finitely generated: if x1,...,xs are rational numbers, pick a natural number w coprime to all the denominators; then 1/w cannot be generated by x1,...,xs.
The fundamental theorem of finitely generated abelian groups states that every finitely generated abelian group G is isomorphic to a direct sum of primary and infinite cyclic groups. A primary cyclic group is one whose order is a power of a prime. That is, every such group is isomorphic to one of the form
where n ≥ 0, and the numbers m1,...,mt are (not necessarily distinct) powers of prime numbers. The values of n, m1,...,mt are (up to order) uniquely determined by G; in particular, G is finite if and only if n = 0
Because of the general fact that Zm is isomorphic to the direct product of Zj and Zk if and only if j and k are coprime and m = jk, we can also write any abelian group G as a direct product of the form
where k1 divides k2, which divides k3 and so on up to ku. Again, the numbers n and k1,...,ku are uniquely determined by G.
Stated differently the fundamental theorem says that a finitely-generated abelian group is the direct sum of a free abelian group of finite rank and a finite abelian group, each of those being unique up to isomorphism. The finite abelian group is the just torsion subgroup of G. The rank of G is defined as the rank of the torsion-free part of G; this is just the number n in the above formulas.
Note that not every abelian group of finite rank is finitely generated; the rank-1 group Q is one example, and the rank-0 group given by a direct sum of countably many copies of Z2 is another one.
A corollary to the fundamental theorem is that every finitely generated torsion-free abelian group is free abelian. The finitely generated condition is essential here: Q is torsion-free but not free abelian.
Every subgroup and factor group of a finitely generated abelian group is again finitely generated abelian. The finitely generated abelian groups, together with the group homomorphisms, form an abelian category.
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