Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The Galápagos Islands are an archipelago of some 13 volcanic islands and associated islets and rocks located in the Pacific Ocean about 1,000 kilometers west of the coast of South America. The Galápagos archipelago is politically part of Ecuador. The oldest of the islands are about 4 million years old and the youngest are still in the process of being formed. Indeed, the Galápagos islands are considered to be one of the most active volcanic areas in the world.
The islands are distributed to the north and south of the equator. The equator crosses the northern part of the largest island, Isabela.
The Galápagos Islands were declared a national park in 1959, protecting 97.5% of the archipelago's land area. The remaining area was set aside for the four human settlements that existed at that time. Approximately 1,000 to 2,000 people called the islands their home. In 1972 a census was done in the archipelago and a population of 3,488 was recorded. By the 1980s, this number had dramatically risen to more than 15,000 people.
In 1986 the surrounding ocean was declared a marine reserve. UNESCO recognised the islands as a World Heritage Site in 1978, which was extended in December 2001 to include the marine reserve. The Charles Darwin Foundation dedicated to the conservation of the islands was founded in Belgium in 1959.
Noteworthy species include:
- Land iguana, Conolophus subcristatus
- Marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus (only iguana feeding from the sea)
- Galapagos tortoise (Galápagos Giant tortoise), Geochelone elephantopus, known as Galápago in Spanish, is the animal that gave the name to the islands.
- Galápagos Green Turtle, thought to be a subspecies of the Pacific Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas agassisi
- Sea cucumber, the cause of environmental battles with fishermen over quotas of this expensive Asian delicacy Holothuria spp.
- 13 endemic species of finch, popularly called Darwin's finches
- Galapagos penguin, Spheniscus mendiculus
- Flightless Cormorant, Nannopterum harrisi
- Galápagos Hawk, Buteo galapagoensis
- Sea lions, which belong to glacier seas are present on the Galápagos islands because of the Humboldt cold current. They are found mainly on the Plaza Sur, Santiago and Fernandina islands.
The archipelago has been known by many different names, including the "Enchanted Islands" because of the way in which the strong and swift currents made navigation difficult. The first crude navigation chart of the islands was done by the buccaneer Ambrose Cowley in 1684, and in those charts he named the islands after some of his fellow pirates or after the English noblemen who helped the pirates' cause.
The main islands of the archipelago (with their English names) are
San Cristóbal (Chatham) It bears the name of the Patron Saint of seafarers, "St. Christopher" its English name was given after the English nobleman Count Chatham . It has an area of 558 km2 and its highest point rises to 730 metres. This islands hosts frigate birds, sea lions, giant turtles, blue and red footed boobies, tropical birds, marine iguanas, dolphins, swallow-tailed seagulls. Its vegetation includes Calandrina galapagos, Lecocarpus darwinii, trees such as Lignum vitae, Matazarna. The largest fresh water lake in the archipelago, "Laguna El Junco" is located in the highlands of San Cristóbal. The capital of the archipelago, Puerto Baquerizo Moreno , lies at the southern tip of the island.
Espańola (Hood) Its name was given in honor of Spain. It is also known as Hood after an English nobleman. It has an area of 60 km2 and a maximum altitude of 206 metres. Espańola is the nesting place of the albatross and also hosts Galápagos Hawks, marine turtles, masqued boobies, marine iguanas, sharks, sea lions, swallow-tailed gulls, finches, Galápagos doves, giant turtles, tropic birds and blue-footed boobies. A lava fissure on the shore has created a blowhole where water spurts high in the air when the waves hit the wall. It is the southernmost island of the archipelago hosting a large proportion of endemic fauna.
Santa Fé (Barrington) Named after a city in Spain, has an area of 24 km2 and a maximum altitude of 259 metres. Santa Fe hosts a forest of Opuntia cactus, which are the largest of the archipelago, and Palo Santo. Weathered cliffs provide a haven for swallow-tailed gulls, red-billed tropic birds, shear-waters petrels. Santa Fe species of land iguanas are often seen, as well as lava lizards . There is a picturesque turquoise lagoon and calm waters where snorkeling can be done along with sea lions.
Genovesa (Tower) The name is derived from Genoa, Italy where it is said Columbus was born. It has an area of 14 km2 and a maximum altitude of 76 metres. This island is formed by the remaining edge of a large crater that is submerged. Its nickname of “the bird island” is clearly justified. At Darwin Bay, frigatebirds, swallow-tailed gulls, which are the only nocturnal of its species in the world can be seen. Red-footed boobies, noddy terns, lava gulls, tropic birds, doves, storm petrels and Darwin finches are also in sight. Prince Philip´s Steps is a magnificent bird-watching plateau with masked and red-footed boobies. There is a large Palo Santo forest.
Floreana (Charles or Santa María) It was named after Juan José Flores, the first president of Ecuador, during whose administration the government of Ecuador took possession of the archipelago. It is also called Santa Maria after one of the caravels of Columbus. It has an area of 173 km2 and a maximum altitude of 640 metres. It is one of the islands with the most interesting human history and one of the earliest to be inhabited. Pink flamingos and green sea turtles nest (December to May) in this island. The "joint footed" petrel is found here, a nocturnal sea bird which spends most of its life away from land. At Post Office Bay, since the th century whalers kept a wooden barrel that served as post office so that mail could be picked up and delivered to their destination mainly Europe and the United States by ships on their way home. At the “Devil´s Crown”, an underwater volcanic cone, coral formations are found.
South Plaza It is named in honor of a former president of Ecuador, General Leonidas Plaza. It has an area of 0.13 km2 and a maximum altitude of 23 metres. The flora of South Plaza includes Opuntia cactua and Sesuvium plants, which forms a reddish carpet on top of the lava formations. Iguanas (land and marine and some hybrids of both species) are abundant and there are a large number of birds that can be observed from the cliffs at the southern part of the island, including tropic birds and swallow-tailed gulls.
Santa Cruz (Indefatigable) Named after the Holy Cross, its English name was given after the British vessel bearing this name (HMS Indefatigable ). It has an area of 986 km2 and a maximum altitude of 864 metres. Santa Cruz is the island that hosts the largest human population in the archipelago at the town of Puerto Ayora. The Charles Darwin Research Station and the headquarters of the Galápagos National Park Service are located here. At the CDRS operates a tortoise breeding center where these chelonians are prepared to be reintroduced to their natural habitat. The Highlands of Santa Cruz offer an exuberant vegetation and are famous for the lava tunnels. Large tortoise populations are found here. Black Turtle Cove is a fantastic site surrounded by mangrove which sea turtles, rays and small sharks sometimes use as a mating area. Cerro Dragón, known for its flamingo lagoon, is also located here, and along the trail one may see land iguanas foraging.
Baltra (South Seymour) The origin of its name is unknown. It has an area of 27 km2 and a maximum altitude of 100 metres. The main airport of the archipelago is located here and was built during WWII by the United States Navy to patrol the Panama Canal. Land iguanas were reintroduced after the native population became extinct during the time when American soldiers were posted in this island, and marine iguanas and marine turtles can also be seen here.
North Seymour Its name was given after an English nobleman called Lord Hugh Seymour. It has an area of 1.9 km2 and a maximum altitude of 28 metres. This islands is home to a large population of blue-footed boobies and swallow-tailed gulls. It hosts one of the largest populations of frigate birds, with their magnificent red pouches.
Marchena (Bindloe) Named after Fray Antonio Marchena. Has an area of 130 km2 and a maximum altitude of 343 metres. Sparrow hawks and sea lions inhabit this island.
Pinzón (Duncan) Named after the Pinzon brothers, captains of the Pinta and Nińa Caravels. Has an area of 18 km2 and a maximum altitude of 458 metres. Sea lions, sparrow hawks, giant turtles, marine iguanas and dolphins can be seen here.
Rábida (Jervis) It bears the name of the convent of Rábida where Columbus left his son during his voyage to the Americas. Has an area of 4.9 km2 and a maximum altitude of 367 metres. The high amount of iron contained in the lava at Rábida give it a distinctive red color. Flamingos and White-Cheeked Pintail Ducks live in a salt-water lagoon close to the beach, where brown pelicans and boobies have built their nests. Nine species of Finches have been reported in this island.
Bartolomé Named after Lt. David Bartholomew of the British Navy. Has an area of 1.2 km2 and a maximum altitude of 114 metres. Famous for its Pinnacle Rock, which is the most representative landmark of Galápagos. Here the rare Galápagos Penguins and Sea Lions can be seen. There are amazing lava formations and spatter cones left untouched since the last eruptions.
Santiago (San Salvador, James) Its name is equivalent to Saint James in English; it is also known as San Salvador, after the first island discovered by Columbus in the Caribbean Sea. This island has an area of 585 km2 and a maximum altitude of 907 metres. Marine iguanas, sea lions, fur seals, land and sea turtles, flamingos, dolphins and sharks are found here. There are a large number of goats and pigs, animals which were introduced by humans to the islands and have caused great harm to the endemic species. Darwin Finches and Galápagos Hawks are usually seen as well as a colony of Fur Seals. At Sullivan Bay a recent pahoehoe lava flow can be observed.
Pinta (Abingdon) It got its name from one of the caravels of Columbus. Has an area of 60 km2 and a maximum altitude of 777 metres. Swallow-tailed gulls, marine iguanas, sparrow hawks, fur seals can be seen here.
Isabela (Albemarle) This island was named in honor of Queen Isabel who sponsored the voyage of Columbus. With an area of 4.588 km2, it is the largest island of the Galápagos. Its highest point is Wolf Volcano with an altitude of 1,707 metres. The island's shape is the product of the merge of six large volcanoes into a single landmass. In this island penguins, cormorants, marine iguanas, boobies, pelicans and Sally lightfoot crabs abound. At the skirts and calderas of the volcanos of Isabela, Land Iguanas and Galápagos Tortoises can be observed, as well as Darwin Finches, Galápagos Hawks, Galápagos Doves and very interesting lowland vegetation. The third-largest human settlement of the archipelago, Puerto Villamil, is located at the south-eastern tip of the island.
Fernandina (Narborough) The name was given in honor of King Fernando of Spain, who sponsored the voyage of Columbus. Fernandina has an area of 642 km2 and a maximum altitude of 1,494 metres. This is the youngest and westernmost island of the Archipelago. Punta Espinoza is a narrow stretch of land where hundreds of Marine Iguanas gather in large groups on black lava rocks. The famous Flightless Cormorant inhabits this island and also Penguins, Pelicans and Sea Lions are abundant. Different types of lava flows can be compared and the Mangrove Forests can be observed.
Wolf (Wenman) This island was named after the German geologist Theodor Wolf. It has an area of 1.3 km2 and a maximum altitude of 253 metres. Here fur seals, frigates, masqued and red footed boobies, marine iguanas, sharks, whales, dolphins and swallow-tailed gulls can be seen.
Darwin (Culpepper) This island is named after Charles Darwin. It has an area of 1.1 km2 and a maximum altitude of 168 metres. Here fur seals, frigates, marine iguanas, swallow-tailed gulls, sea lions, Whales, marine turtles, dolphins, red footed and masqued boobies can be seen.
The Galápagos were discovered by chance in March 10, 1535 when Dominican Fray Tomás de Berlanga, the Bishop of Panama, sailed to Peru to settle a dispute between Francisco Pizarro and his lieutenants after the conquest of the Incas, while performing an administrative mission for the Spanish Monarch Carlos V. The bishop's ship stalled when the winds died and strong currents carried him out to the Galápagos. In his account of the adventure, addressed to Emperor Carlos V, Berlanga described the harsh, desert-like condition of the islands and their trademark giant tortoises. He wrote about the marine iguanas, the sea lions and the many types of birds. He also noted the remarkable tameness of the animals that continues to thrill and delight modern visitors.
The islands are believed to date back to six million years ago as a result of volcanic activity generated beneath the ocean's floor. They were uninhabited, although Thor Heyerdahl in 1963 reported findings of pottery of South American origin that suggested earlier contacts, a theory that appears to still be controversial. The archipelago was used as hiding place by the English pirates that pilfered the Spanish galleons carrying gold and silver from South America to Spain.
The first Englishman to visit Galápagos was Richard Hawkins, in 1593. From that time until 1816 many famous pirates visited the archipelago.
Alexander Selkirk, the man whose adventures in Juan Fernández Islands inspired Daniel Defoe to write Robinson Crusoe, visited the Galápagos in 1708 after he was picked up from Juan Fernández by the privateer Woodes Rogers. Rogers was refitting his ships in the islands after sacking Guayaquil.
The first scientific mission to the Galápagos arrived in 1790 under the leadership of Alessandro Malaspina, a Sicilian captain whose expedition was sponsored by the King of Spain. However, the records of the expedition were lost.
In 1793, James Collnet made a description of the flora and fauna of Galápagos and suggested that the islands could be used as base for the whalers operating in the Pacific Ocean. He also draw the first accurate navigation charts of the islands. Whalers killed and captured thousands of the Galápagos tortoises to extract their fat. The tortoises could also be kept on board ship as a means of providing of fresh protein as these animals could survive for several months on board without any food or water. The hunting of the tortoises was responsible for greatly diminishing and in some cases eliminating certain races. Along with whalers came the fur-seal hunters who brought the population of this animal close to extinction.
Ecuador annexed the Galápagos Islands on February 12, 1832, naming it Archipelago of Ecuador. This was a new name that added to several names that had been, and are still, used to refer to the archipelago. The first governor of Galápagos, General José de Villamil, brought a group of convicts to populate the island of Floreana and in October 1832 some artisans and farmers joined.
The Voyage of the Beagle brought the survey ship HMS Beagle under captain Robert FitzRoy to the Galápagos on September 15, 1835 to survey approaches to harbors. The captain and others on board including his companion the young naturalist Charles Darwin made a scientific study of geology and biology on four of the thirteen islands before they left on October 20 to continue on their round-the-world expedition. The governor of the prison colony on Charles Island told Darwin that tortoises differed from island to island, and when specimens of birds were analysed on return to England it was found that many different kinds of birds were species of finches which were also unique to islands. These facts were crucial in Darwin's development of his evolution theory, which was presented in The Origin of Species.
José Valdizán and Manuel Julián Cobos tried a new colonization, beginning the exploitation of a type of lichen found in the islands (Roccella portentosa) used as a coloring agent. After the assassination of Valdizán by some of his workers, Cobos brought from the continent a group of more than a hundred workers to San Cristóbal island and tried his luck at planting sugar cane. He ruled in his plantation with an iron hand which lead to his assassination in 1904. Since 1897 Antonio Gil began another plantations in Isabela island.
Over the course of a whole year, from September 1904, an expedition of the Academy of Sciences of California, led by Rollo Beck, stayed in the Galápagos collecting scientific material on geology, entomology, ornithology, botany, zoology and herpetology. Another expedition from the same Academy was done in 1932 (Templeton Crocker Expedition) to collect insects, fish, shells, fossils, birds and plants.
During WWII Ecuador authorized the United States to establish a naval base in Baltra island and radar stations in other strategic locations.
In 1946 a penal colony was established in Isabela Island, but was suspended in 1959.
UNESCO declared the Galápagos Islands Humanity Natural Heritage in 1979 and, six years later, a Biosphere Reserve (1985), which has resulted in an even greater interest at the international level.
- Thor Heyerdahl and Arne Skjolsvold , Archaeological Evidence of Pre-Spanish Visits to the Galapagos Islands, Memoirs 12, Society for American Archaeology , 1956
- Quammen, David, (1996). The Song of the Dodo. Touchstone, New York.
- Galapagos map Galapagos map geology, history, faqs, pictures and travel information
- Galapagos Islands xeric scrub (World Wildlife Fund)
- Galápagos Marine ecoregion (World Wildlife Fund)
- Charles Darwin Foundation
- Galápagos geology - the page also icludes much general information on Galapágos islands
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