Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Government in exile
A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a country's legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. Governments in exile usually operate under the assumption that they will one day return to their native country and regain power.
Governments in exile frequently occur during wartime occupation. For example, during the German expansion of the Second World War, numerous European governments and monarchs were forced to seek refuge in England, rather than face certain destruction at the hands of the Nazis.
Currently, there are few governments in exile. They include:
- Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) in the Tindouf region in Algeria
- the administration of the Belarus National Republic exiled since 1920 and currently led by Ivonka Survilla in Canada, see History of Belarus: BNR
- the government of the Dalai Lama in India, claiming to be the legitimate ruler of the Chinese-occupied Tibet
- the Republic of Estonia in Exile , headed by Kalev Ots
- A pro-Georgian government claiming to represent the breakaway region of Abkhazia is currently located in Tbilisi
- the Progress Party of Equatorial Guinea has proclaimed Severo Moto Nsá "President" in Madrid exile. Unlike most governments in exile, the PP has never held government power.
- the National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma is led by Sein Win . It is composed of members of parliament elected in 1990 but not allowed by the military to take office.
- the "Gabonese Government of National Salvation " led by "Prime Minister" Daniel Mengara
- a "Republic of Serb-Krajina " was proclaimed on 26 February 2005 in Belgrade by hardline nationalists aligned with Vojislav Šešelj and the Serb Radical Party.
- the Republic of China has arguably been in exile from Mainland China since 1949 when Chiang Kai-shek fled to Taipei
- the Republik Maluku Selatan, in exile since 1950.
- the government of Somalia, exiled in Kenya.
Most are not widely recognized.
World War II
- Belgium (invaded 10 May, 1940)
- Czechoslovakia (established in 1940 by Benes and recognised by the British government)
- Free France (after 1940)
- Greece (invaded 28 October, 1940)
- Luxembourg (invaded 10 May, 1940)
- Netherlands (invaded 10 May, 1940)
- Norway (invaded 9 April, 1940)
- Poland (see Polish government in exile, 1939-1990)
- Yugoslavia (invaded 6 April, 1941)
The Danish exception
Denmark's occupation (9 April, 1940) was administered by Auswärtiges Amt, contrary to other occupied lands that were under military administration. Denmark did not establish a government in exile. The King and his government remained in Denmark, and functioned comparably independently for the first three years of German occupation. Meanwhile, Iceland was occupied by the Allies, and effectively separated from the Danish crown.
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