Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Grape seed oil
Grape seed oil is a vegetable oil pressed from the seeds of Vitis vinifera grapes, an abundant by-product of wine making. Grape seed oil is used for: salad dressings, marinades, deep frying, flavored oils, baking, massage oil, sunburn repair lotion, hair products, body hygiene creams, lip balm and hand creams.
Grape seed oil is extracted from grape seeds and has a relatively high smoke point , approximately 320 °F (160 °C), so it can be safely used to cook at high temperatures. Grape seed oil can be used for stir-fries, sautéing and fondue. In addition to its high smoking point, grape seed oil has other positive attributes in relation to cooking. It has a clean, light taste that has been described as 'nutty'. Because of its 'neutral' taste, grape seed oil is often used as a base for infusing or flavoring with garlic, rosemary, or other herbs or spices. One is able to use less grape seed oil for precisely the same reasons that the cosmetics industry likes it, the emollient and film-forming virtues.
The metabolic energy density of grape seed oil is comparable to that of other oils, about 120 kCal per tablespoon (34 kJ/ml). However, the fact that less oil is needed for cooking may be useful when observing a low-fat diet .
In all products it is a preferred cosmetic ingredient for damaged and stressed tissues, regenerative and restructuring virtues which allow a better control of skin moisturization. It can help skin retain the normal structure of epithelium cells and nerve cells via supporting the cell membranes. It is noted to be especially effective for repair of the skin around the eyes. Used as an all over skin moisturizer, Grapeseed oil is known to reduce the look of strech marks. Expectant mothers who use this all throughout their pregency report little to no skin damage/strech marks.
Current medical information
In a large survey published in 1993 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Dr. Nash showed in a sample group of 56 men and women using up to 1.5 ounces (43 g) per day, an amount that one can cook with, grapeseed oil had the ability to raise HDL levels by 13% and reduce LDL levels by 7% in just three weeks. The total cholesterol/HDL ratio was reduced 15.6% and the total LDL/HDL ratio was reduced by 15.3%, which could be significant for those at risk of heart attack.
Vitamins in grape seed oil
|Average composition of Grape Seed Oil fatty acids|
|Common Name||Acid Name||Average Percentage Range|
|Palmitic acid||Hexadecanoic acid||5||to||11%|
|Stearic acid||Octadecanoic acid||3||to||6%|
|Palmitoleic acid||9-Hexadecenoic acid||0.5||to||0.70%|
Some sources claim that grape seed oil is also high in procyanidolic oligomers (also known as oligomeric proanthocyanidins, OPCs or PCOs), which are also the main constituent of pycnogenol . However other sources dispute this. Because proanthocyanidins are polar molecules which are insoluble in nonpolar liquids such as oils, grape seed oil is unlikely to contain as much as PCO as other grape products like fresh grapes, grape juice or red wine. Some published independent analyses show that grape seed oil typically contains almost no PCO at all . It has been claimed that many distributors of pycnogenol and related products are involved in pyramid schemes .
- D.T. Nash, S.D. Nash, State University of New York Health Science Center at Syracuse, W.D. Grant, Department of Family Medicine, State University of New York Health Science Center at Syracuse, Syracuse, New York: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 925-116 Grapeseed Oil, A natural Agent Which Raises Serum HDL levels, 1993.
- Joshi SS, Kuszynski CA, Bagchi D. The cellular and molecular basis of health benefits of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2001;2(2):187-200.
- Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler's Honest Herbal. 4th ed. New York: The Haworth Herbal Press; 1999:201-203.
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