Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Gravel is rock that is of a certain size range. In geology, gravel is any loose rock that is at least two millimeters in its largest dimension (about 1/12 of an inch), and no more than 75 millimeters (about 3 inches). Sometimes gravel is restricted to rock in the 2-4 millimeter range, with pebble being reserved for rock 4-75 millimeters (some say 64 millimeters). The next smaller size class in geology is sand, which is 0.02 mm to 2 mm in size. The next larger size is cobble, which is 75 (64) millimeters to 256 millimeters (about ten inches).
Gravel is an important commercial product, used in many applications. Some important types of gravel include:
- Crushed stone: This is generally limestone or dolomite that has been crushed and graded by screens to certain size classes. It is widely used in concrete and as a surfacing for roads and driveways, sometimes with tar applied over it. Crushed stone may also be made from granite and other rocks. A special type of limestone crushed stone is dense grade aggregate, or DGA, also known as crusher run. This is a mixed grade of mostly small crushed stone in a matrix of crushed limestone powder.
- Creek rock: This is generally rounded stones, potentially of a wide range of types, that are dredged or scooped from river beds and creek beds. It is also often used as concrete aggregate and less often as a paving surface.
In Britain, gravel always refers to smooth, rounded, river-worn material, never to angular stones or crushed rock. British gravel ranges in size from 4 mm to about 30 mm, the smaller sizes up to 8 mm are usually called 'pea gravel'.
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