Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Grenoble (Occitan: Grasanòbol) is a city and commune in south-east France, situated at the foot of the Alps, at the confluence of the Drac into the Isère River. Located in the Rhône-Alpes région, Grenoble is the préfecture (capital) of the Isère département. Population of the city (commune) of Grenoble at the 1999 census was 153,317 inhabitants (157,900 inhabitants as of February 2004 estimates). Population of the whole metropolitan area (in French: aire urbaine) at the 1999 census was 514,559 inhabitants.
The city has been known under different names through time:
- Cularo when the Allobroges build strong walls around the small town in the 3rd Century.
- Gratianopolis after 380 when the Emperor Gratian visited the city and had the walls improved.
After the collapse of the Roman Empire the city was part of the first Burgundian kingdom, until it was taken by Clotaire I, king of the Franks and a son of Clovis. Later on, it progressively passed into the possession of the Carolingian kings, then the second Burgundian kingdom of Arles and finally became a possession of the counts of Vienne, whose title, "Dauphin", gave the region its traditional name: Dauphiné. The last Dauphin of Vienne sold the region to France in 1349.
Grenoble was the capital of the Dauphiné, a province of France since 1349.
Science and education
In 1339 the University of Grenoble was founded by Pope Benedict XII and the Dauphin Humbert II (the counts of Dauphiné bore the title of Dauphin), whose charter of privileges stipulated that the university should give instruction in civil and canon law, medicine, and the arts. This first attempt at a university foundered, but it was re-established on sound footing by the governor of the Dauphiné in 1542.
Grenoble is a major scientific center, especially in the fields of physics, computer science and applied mathematics. The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) and several laboratories of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), the Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG), the Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique (INRIA) and the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique are located in Grenoble.
The presence of a large international community through both foreign students and foreign researchers has prompted the creation of an international school more than a decade ago: the CSI Europole formally situated downtown in the Lycée International Stendhal across from the Maison du Tourisme . Originally only four language sections were available: German, Spanish, Italian and English. It is now one of France's better secondary education centers.
Grenoble hosted the 1968 Winter Olympics.
Grenoble is also famous for its Italian quarter, the "Quartier Saint Laurent", and the many ski resorts surrounding it.
Grenoble was the birthplace of:
- Abel Servien (1593-1659), diplomat
- Hugues de Lionne (1611-1671), statesman
- Claudine Alexandrine Guérin de Tencin (1681-1749), courtesan and author
- Jacques de Vaucanson (1709-1782), inventor of the modern-day robot
- Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (1715-1780), writer of the Enlightenment
- Jean Joseph Mounier (1758-1806), politician
- Antoine Barnave (1761-1793), orator of the French Revolution
- Casimir Pierre Périer (1777-1832), statesman
- Stendhal (1783-1842, novelist
- Jean-François Champollion, (1790-1832), who deciphered Egyptian hieroglyphics
- Henri Fantin-Latour (1836-1904), painter
- Lionel Terray (born 1921), climber
- Georges-Francis Servoz-Gavin, better known as "Johnny" (born 1942), motor racing driver
- André the Giant (1946-1993), professional wrestler and actor
- Michel Lotito (born 1950), entertainer
- Maurice Dantec (born 1959), science fiction author
- Miss Kittin, real name Caroline Hervé born 1973), electronica vocalist
- 1961: Catania, Italy
- 1963: Innsbruck, Austria
- 1976: Essen, Germany and Halle, Germany
- 1977: Chisinau, Moldova
- 1984: Oxford, United Kingdom and Rehovot, Israel
- 1990: Phoenix, Arizona, United States
- 1992: Pécs, Hungary
- 1997: Kaunas, Lithuania
- 1998: Sfax , Tunisia
- 1999: Constantine, Algeria
- 2002: Corato , Italy
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