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CSS H.L. Hunley was a submarine of the Confederate States Navy that demonstrated both the advantages and the dangers of undersea warfare. Hunley was the first submarine to sink a warship, though the sub was also sunk in the engagement.
Privately invented and paid for, by Horace Lawson Hunley and built in 1863 by Park and Lyons of Mobile, Alabama, Hunley was fashioned like a cylindrical iron steam boiler, which was deepened and also lengthened through the addition of tapered ends. The Hunley was designed to be hand powered by a crew of eight: seven to turn the hand-cranked propeller and one to steer and direct the boat. As a true submarine, each end was equipped with ballast tanks that could be flooded by valves or pumped dry by hand pumps. Extra ballast was added through the use of iron weights bolted to the underside of the hull. In the event the submarine needed additional buoyancy to rise in an emergency, the iron weight could be removed by unscrewing the heads of the bolts from inside the vessel.
The Confederate Navy seized the vessel from its private builders and owners a few weeks after its arrival in Charleston, South Carolina.
On August 29, 1863 five of a crew of eight were killed during a training attack, when the skipper accidentally dove with the hatches still open. On October 15 1863 the Hunley failed to surface during a trial dive, killing its inventor Horace Lawson Hunley and seven other crewmen. In both cases, the Confederate Navy salvaged the vessel and returned it to service.
Although it had never launched a successful attack, on February 17, 1864, the Confederate submarine made a night attack on the USS Housatonic. Housatonic, an 1800-ton steam powered sloop-of-war with 12 large cannon, was at the entrance to Charleston, South Carolina harbor, about 4 miles out to sea. In an effort to break the naval blockade of the city Lt. George Dixon and a crew of seven volunteers rammed the H.L. Hunley into the Housatonic with 90 pounds of explosive powder attached to a 22-foot long spar on its bow. The explosives were embedded in the sloop's wooden side and were detonated by a rope/trigger, as the Hunley backed away. The resulting explosion sent the Housatonic with five crew members to the bottom of Charleston Harbor, in five minutes. The Hunley also sank, moments after signalling shore, possibly because of the blast, although this is not certain. The entire crew died, but the H.L. Hunley earned a place in the history of undersea warfare as the first submarine to sink a ship in wartime.
The search for the Hunley ended in 1995, 131 years later, when best-selling author Clive Cussler, and his team from the National Underwater and Marine Agency (NUMA) discovered the submarine after a 14-year search. At the time of discovery, Cussler and NUMA were conducting this research in partnership with the South Carolina Institute of Anthropology and Archaeology (SCIAA). The team realized that they had found the Hunley after exposing the forward hatch and the ventilator box (the air box for the attachment of a snorkel). The submarine rested on its starboard side at about a 45-degree angle and was covered in a 1/4 to 3/4-inch encrustation of ferrous oxide bonded with sand and seashell particles. Archaeologists exposed a little more on the port side and found the bow dive plane on that side. More probing revealed an approximate length of 40 feet with all of the vessel preserved under the sediment.
Archaeological investigation and excavation culminated with the raising of the Hunley from its watery grave on August 8, 2000. A large team of professionals from the Naval Historical Center's Underwater Archaeology Branch, National Park Service, the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, and various other individuals investigated the vessel, measuring and documenting it prior to removal. Once the on site investigation was complete, harnesses were slipped underneath the sub one by one and attached to a truss designed by Oceaneering, Inc. After the last harness had been secured, the crane from Clarissa B(a U.S Navy barge) began hoisting the submarine from the mire of the harbor entrance. On August 8, 2000 at 8:37 a.m. the sub broke the surface for the first time in over 136 years, where it was greeted by a cheering crowd lining the shore and in hundreds of nearby watercraft. Once safely on its transporting barge, the Hunley finally completed its last voyage back to Charleston. The removal operation reached its successful conclusion when the submarine was secured inside the Warren Lasch Conservation Center, at the former Charleston Navy Yard in a specially designed tank of freshwater to await conservation.
Apart from the commander of the submarine, Lt. George Dixon, the identities of the volunteer crewmembers of the Hunley remained a mystery. Douglas Owsley, a physical anthropologist working for the Smithsonian Instituion's National Museum of Natural History examined the remains and determined that four of the men were American born, while the four others were European born, based on the chemical signatures left on the men's teeth and bones by the predominant components of their diet: four of the men had eaten a lot of corn, indicating that they were likely Americans, while the remainder ate mostly wheat and rye, indicating that they probably originated in Europe. By examining Civil War records and conducting DNA testing with possible relatives, forensic genealogist Linda Abrams was able to identify the remains of Dixon and the four other men: Frank Collins, Joseph Ridgaway, and James A. Wicks. Identifying the European crew members has been more problematic, but was apparently solved in late 2004. The position of the corpses indicated that the men apparently died at their stations, and were not trying to flee the sinking submarine.
On 17 April 2004 the remains of the crew of the H. L. Hunley were interred in Charleston's Magnolia Cemetery with full military honors, and attended by as many as 10,000 civil war re-enactors and well wishers.
Hunley herself remains at the "Lasch" conservation center, for further study and conservation. There have been many surprising discoveries over time, including the complexity of the sub's ballast and pumping systems, steering and diving apparatus, and its construction and final assembly. Another surprise occurred in 2002, when a researcher, examining the area close to Lieutenant Dixon, found the famous gold coin, long thought to be a myth, which his girlfriend had given to him. Legend had held that Dixon had the coin with him at the Battle of Shiloh, where he was wounded in 1862. A bullet, which would have probably cost him his leg and possibly his life, struck the coin in his pocket. The coin was badly bent but saved Dixon from injury and was later engraved by him to mark the occasion.
- Hunley assoc.
- Hunley history
- Pre-Hunley Confederate Submarines
- US Navy
- The Hunley (TV movie)
- The Hunley [ISBN 1886391432]
- Civil War Sub [ISBN 0448425971]
- The Voyage of the Hunley [ISBN 1580800947]
- Raising the Hunley [ISBN 0345447727]
- The CSS H.L. Hunley [ISBN 1572491752]
- The CSS Hunley [ISBN 0878332197]
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