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According to the latest national census, the major ethnic groups in the county are:
The primary Hungarian group, the Székely (Szeklers), form majorities in most municipalities in the county, with Romanians concentrated in a few specific towns, such as Bălan (Balánbánya). Romanians also have a long history in Harghita.
By religion, the county is divided roughly thus:
- Roman Catholic (65%)
- Orthodox (13%)
- Reformed (13%)
- Unitarian (7%)
- Other (2%).
The Székely tend to follow Catholicism, while the Romanians are primarily Orthodox.
Harghita County has a total area of 6,639 km².
Harghita consists primarily of mountains connected to the Eastern Carpathians , such as the Ciuc (Csík) and Harghita (Hargita) ranges, volcanic plateaux, foothills and the more densely populated river valleys.
The mountains are volcanic in origin and the region is known for its excellent hot mineral springs. Harghita is known as one of the coldest regions in all of Romania, but summers can be quite warm.
Provided enough rain falls, the county's climate is excellent for wild mushrooms. The county contains the sources of two of the most important rivers in Romania, the Mureş (Maros) and the Olt. These rivers' origins, near the villages of Izvoru Mureşului (Marosfő) and Sândominic (Csíkszentdomokos), are only a few miles apart, yet the Mureş flows west to the Tisa (Tisza), while the Olt flows south to the Danube.
Harghita's many spectacular natural features include Sfânta Ana (Szent-Anna), a volcanic crater lake in the south of the county near Tuşnad (Tusnád), Lacu Roşu (Gyilkos-tó) a mountain lake in the northeast near Gheorgheni (Gyergyószentmiklós); and nearby Cheile Bicazului (Békási-szoros), a dramatic, narrow canyon formed by the Bicaz (Békás) stream.
List of cities in Harghita county
- Miercurea Ciuc (Csíkszereda)
- Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely)
- Gheorgheni (Gyergyószentmiklós)
- Topliţa (Maroshévíz)
- Cristuru Secuiesc (Székelykeresztúr)
- Bălan (Balánbánya)
- Vlăhiţa (Szentegyháza)
- Borsec (Borszék)
- Băile Tuşnad (Tusnádfürdő)
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