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During the Irish War of Independence Boland was active with Michael Collins, but he left Ireland for the United States of America along with Eamon de Valera as part of a campaign to raise awareness and support for their cause in America.
At the 1918 general election he was elected to represent the Roscommon South seat. In line with all the Sinn Fein MPs elected at that election he did not represent his constituents at Westminster but withdrew to sit in the declared independent Dáil Éireann (the First Dáil).
He opposed the Anglo-Irish Treaty along with de Valera, and in the ensuing Irish Civil War sided with the Republicans. In 1922, he was re-elected to represent Roscommon South but later that year, in June, he was assassinated at the Skerries Grand Hotel.
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