Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Harry Partch (June 24, 1901 – September 3, 1974) was an American composer. He was one the first composers to work with microtonal scales, writing much of his music for instruments he built himself, tuned in 11-limit just intonation. Partch's tuning had its origin in an extended version of Max Meyer 's tonality diamond , whose diagonals produce Otonalities (o=over, or 'major') and Utonalities (u=under or 'minor') in Partch's scheme. The 11-limit tonality diamond is clearly embodied in Partch's diamond marimba . Due to peculiarities of media reporting, Partch is famous for his 43-tone scale, even though he used many different scales in his work.
Partch was born in Oakland, California. Both his parents were Presbyterian missionaries. He learned to play the clarinet and guitar as a child, and there was also a harmonium in the house, which he played. He began to compose at an early age using the chromatic scale normal in western music, but burned all his early works after becoming frustrated with what he saw as the imperfections of that particular system of musical tuning.
Interested in the potential musicality of speech, Partch worked out his first extended scales to notate the inflections of the speaking voice. He built his adapted viola to demonstrate the concept. He then secured a grant, which allowed him to go to London to study the history of tuning systems. While there, he met the poet W. B. Yeats with the intention of gaining his permission to write an opera based on his translation of Sophocles' Oedipus the King. He took another instrument he had built, an adapted guitar, to the meeting, and accompanied himself in one of his own songs on it. Yeats was enthusiastic, saying "a play done entirely in this way, with this wonderful instrument, and with this type of music, might really be sensational", and giving Partch's idea his blessing.
Partch set about building more instruments to realise his opera with. However, his grant money ran out, and, back in the United States, he began to live as a hobo, travelling around on trains and taking casual work where he could find it. He continued in this way for ten years, writing about his experiences in journals that were later collected together under the title Bitter Music . They frequently include snatches of overheard speech notated on musical staves according to the pitches used by the speaker. This technique (which had been earlier used by Leos Janacek and would be later used by Steve Reich) was to become a standard approach to vocal parts in Partch's work.
In 1941, Partch wrote Barstow, a vocal piece that takes as its text eight pieces of graffiti he had seen on a highway railing in Barstow, California. The piece uses his 43-tone scale, and is scored for his custom-built instruments.
In 1943, Partch received another grant, and was able to settle down somewhat and work with more dedication on the music. He returned to his Oedipus project, although the executors of Yeats' estate refused permission for him to use Yeats' translation, and he had to make his own (a recording with Yeats' translation has since been released, Yeats' text having passed into the public domain). He also started work on US Highball , a piece that used many of his jottings from his hobo years as text. The work is, essentially, the story of a hobo's trip from Oakland, California to Chicago, a journey that Partch had himself undertaken.
Around this time, Partch was also working on a book, eventually published as Genesis of a Music . It is an account of his own music, with discussions of music theory and instrument design. It is considered a standard text of microtonal music theory.
Partch went on to write The Bewitched , a sort of cross between a ballet and an opera and Revelation in the Courthouse Park , a work based in large part on Euripides' The Bacchae. Delusion of the Fury (1969) is seen by some as his greatest work. He died in San Diego, California of a heart attack.
Partch ran his own record label, "Gate 5 ", to release recordings of his works. Towards the end of his life, Columbia Records made recordings of some of his works, including Delusion of the Fury, which helped in large part to bring him to the attention of the musical world. He remains a somewhat obscure figure, but is well known in experimental and microtonal circles, and is considered by many to be one of the most significant composers of the 20th century.
In 1990, Dean Drummond 's Newband became custodians of the original Harry Partch instrument collection, and frequently perform with and commission new pieces for Partch's instruments.
- Partch US Highball.ogg (ogg format, 19 seconds, 84KB) (1943, revised 1955), excerpt.
- Partch Petaluma verse1 opening.ogg (ogg format, 20 seconds, 103KB) (1963-64, revised 1966), opening of the first verse, which features the zymo-xyl (a sort of xylophone with additional liquor bottles that are also struck) and the crychord (a plucked string instrument).
- Corporeal Meadows: Harry Partch an American Original
- American Mavericks: Harry Partch's Instruments playable with explanations and musical examples
- Harry Partch Information Center and Newband Home Page
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