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(This article is about the place in the Middle East. For other uses of the name, see Hebron (disambiguation).)
Hebron (Arabic الخليل al-Ḫalīl; Hebrew חֶבְרוֹן, Standard Hebrew Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew Ḥeḇrôn: the name in each language is derived from that language's word for "Friend") is a town in the West Bank, in an area known in Israel as Judea. It lies 3,050 feet (930 m) above sea level.
Geographic coordinates : 31°32N 35°06E
Hebron is located 30km south of Jerusalem. Its elevation from sea level is about 1000m. Hebron is famous for its grapes, limestones, pottery workshops and glassblowing factories. The old city of Hebron is characterized by its narrow and winding streets, the flat-roofed stone houses, and the old bazaars. It is the home of Hebron University and Palestine Polytechnic University.
Hebron is one of most ancient cities in the Middle East, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world and was an ancient Canaanite royal city. According to archeological findings it was probably founded in the 35th century BC. 18th century BC. It is mentioned numerous times in the Bible. In particular, a cave near it, called the Cave of the Patriarchs ( Arabic:المسجد الإبراهيمي, Hebrew: "ma'arat ha-machpela"), is traditionally considered the place where Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebekah, Jacob and Leah are buried. This cave is considered holy by both Jews and Muslims, and is the second holiest site in Judaism and a Muslim mosque. Muslims also believe that Joseph's burial site is situated here. David was anointed King of Israel in Hebron and reigned in the city until the capture of Jerusalem, when the capital was moved to that city. Byzantine emperor Justinian I had built a church over the Cave of the Patriarchs in the sixth century CE which was later destroyed by the Sassanids.
The Islamic rule of Hebron started in 638. It lasted until the Crusaders occupied Hebron in 1099. They called the city Abraham. Then the name changed back to Hebron after their defeat by Saladin in 1187. Mamluks took control of Hebron until 1516, when it fell under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. In 1831, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt took over Hebron until 1840.
In December 1917 and during World War I, the British occupied Hebron. The city suffered the worst effects of the riots that shook Palestine in 1929, with some 67 Jews massacred and many others wounded. It remained as a part of the British mandate until 1948. In 1949, Jordan took over the control of Hebron and the rest of the West Bank; after the Six Day War, in June 1967, Hebron and the rest of the West Bank fell under Israeli control (See Occupation of the Palestinian territories). Since early 1997 the city has been divided into two sectors: H1 and H2. H1 part of the town has been controlled by the Palestinian Authority, in accordance with Hebron Protocol . After the massacre of Muslims at prayer by Baruch Goldstein in 1994, an international unarmed observer force - the Temporary International Presence in Hebron (TIPH) was established in order to maintain a buffer between the Palestinian Arab population and Jews residing in the ancient Jewish quarter.
Population at different times
this needs expansion to earlier times.
year Jews Christians Muslims Total source 1538 20h 7h 749h 776h Cohen & Lewis (h = households) 1922 430 73 16,074 16,577 Census 1931 135 112 17,275 17,522 Census 1944 0 150 24,400 24,550 Estimate 1967 0 106 38,203 38,309 Census 1997 530 3 130,000 130,533 Jewish Virtual Library 1997 NA NA NA 405,664 Census, Palestinian Central Buraeu of Statistics (PCBS) 2001 NA NA NA 454,493 Projected population, PCBS 2002 NA NA NA 471,606 Projected population, PCBS 2003 NA NA NA 489,005 Projected population, PCBS 2004 NA NA NA 506,641 Projected population, PCBS 2005 NA NA NA 524,510 Projected population, PCBS 2006 NA NA NA 542,593 Projected population, PCBS 2007 NA NA NA 560,898 Projected population, PCBS
Jewish settlement after 1967
Following the Six-Day War of 1967, a group of Jews disguised as tourists, led by Rabbi Moshe Levinger , took over the main hotel in Hebron and refused to leave. They later moved to a nearby abandoned army camp and established the community of Kiryat Arba. In 1979, Levinger's wife led 30 Jewish women to take over the Daboya Hospital (Beit Hadassah) in central Hebron. Before long this received Israeli government approval and further Jewish enclaves in the city were established with army assistance. This process of expansion of the Jewish presence is continuing and there are now more than 20 Jewish settlements in and around the city. Jews living in these areas and their supporters claim that they are resettling areas where Jews have lived since time immemorial, but the presence of Jews in these areas is condemned by European governments and Arab regimes as a violation of international law.
In 1997, an association of some pre-1929 Jewish residents of Hebron published a statement dissociating themselves from the present settlers in Hebron, calling them dishonest and an obstacle to peace. .
Cultural, historical and sporting landmarks
Adjacent to the municipality building, Hebron archeological museum has a collection of artifacts from the Cannanite to the Islamic periods. The Oak Of Abraham (Ibrahim), also called Oak of Mambre is an ancient oak tree which marks the place where according to tradition Abraham pitched his tent. It is estimated that this oak is approximately 5000 years old. The Russian Orthodox Church owns the site and the nearby monastery.
- Hebron Youth Club (Shabab El-Khalil).
- Hebron Ahli Club (Al-Ahli).
- Muslim Young Men Club .
- Tarek Ben Ziyyad Club .
- The Palestinian Child Arts Center .
- The Palestinian Center for Childhood and Development .
- Patient's Friends Society .
- Agricultural Development Society .
- Hebron Young Women Center .
- LMLK seals (oldest inscription naming the city dates to 700 BC if HBRN=Hebron)
- Israeli-Palestinian conflict
- Baruch Goldstein (1994 Massacre)
- Al-Aqsa Intifada
- The Jewish Community of Hebron
- Hebron (Al-Khalil), Holy Land
- Christian Peacemaker Teams' photos of Hebron
- The City of Hebron from Hebron Chamber of Commerce.
- Daily Bible study - Hebron
- HBRN LMLK seals
- History of Hebron from Encyclopedia Judaica
- The International Presence in Hebron
- Israel's Ministry of Foreign Affairs page on Hebron
- Pictures from ArchNet digital library.
- The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories
- Islamic Charitable Society.
- Izzidin Al-Manasra, Poet.
- Yousef H. Katalo, Artist.
- Hasan Hourani, Artist.
- Khaled Hourani, Artist.
- Issam Bader, Artist.
- Sheikh Mohammed Ali, Mayor of Hebron from 1948-76.
- Mazen Dana, Journalist.
- Abas Zaki, Politician.
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