Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Heim theory is a proposed 'Theory of Everything', based on the work of the German physicist Burkhard Heim. The theory attempts to resolve incompatibilities between quantum theory and general relativity. The term "Heim theory" is also used for theories which are extensions or generalizations of the original theory proposed by Heim. Most notable are the theoretical generalizations put forth by Droescher, who worked in collaboration with Heim for some length. Their combined theories are also known as "Heim-Droescher" theories, although there are no international established standards for naming Heim-related theories at present. This ambiguity in the term "Heim Theory" has lead to some confusion and difficulties over the correct interpretation of the theory. For example, the original Heim theory proposed that 6 dimensions were sufficient to describe the behaviour of the universe. Droescher extended this to 12, in order to demonstrate that quantum mechanics could be embedded within the original Heim theory. Nevertheless, both theories are often known as "Heim theories". Various other dimensional extensions allow one to interpret that branches of established physics can be embedded in Heim theory. These include relativistic electrodynamics , and Maxwell's equations.
In order to appreciate the significance of Heim theory and other "theories of everything", it is necessary to briefly discuss the incompatibilities of quantum theory and general relativity. For sufficiently small and bound systems, (say, around the size of atoms and quarks) quantum theory proposes that these systems behave as if certain physical characteristics of them are quantized. For example, only fixed amount of energy can be exchanged with such systems. For sufficiently large and unbound systems, general relativity proposes that energy and mass are interchangable, and that systems possess a continuum of energies as particles approach the speed of light. If we consider the situation where small particles move close to the speed of light in a bound system, both theories become problematic in describing the full behaviour of the observed system. This is because discretization of energy proposed by quantum mechanics is apparently incompatible with the continuum of energy proposed by general relativity and its consequences. A similar situation arises when an attempt is made to describe a large quantity of mass or energy confined to a small region of space. In particular, a successful theory which can unify quantum and general relativity theory should be able to explain the lifetimes of particles (how long the particle exists before it decays into energy and disappears), and the reasoning behind the observed quantization of mass in elementary particles.
To resolve this difference, Heim theory attempts to explain the nature of elementary particles, along with their observed lifetimes and discrete mass spectrum using a concept known as quantized geometrodynamics . This concept involves an abstract mathematical object embedded in 12-dimensional space. This space is extremely small, and consists of many quantized surface elements on the order of 10-70 m2 small. Each quantized surface element is known as a metron (coined by Heim). The theory is a purely geometrical theory - that is, space is considered quantized and all the nuclear forces arise analogously to gravity in general relativity. Some features of the theory are:
- The reasonable accuracy of the mass formula - The mass formula predicts the masses of 16 elementary particles to a relative accuracy of one part in 10,000. The probability of this being due to chance on the order of 1 in 1064 [(10,000)16 = (104)16]. No other established theory of fundamental particles at present have made comparable theoretical predictions to this accuracy. Thus if there were more widespread acknowledgement of the correctness of the mass formula, then perhaps part of the foundations, logic, and consequences of the Heim theory will have to be acknowledged as a possibility. Note also, that although vol.1 of Heim's Magnum Opus contains several errors that are in need of correction - the Heim theory group members are currently active in that area -, vol. 2 was cross checked more thoroughly and is essentially error free - and it is here that the mass formula is derived.
- The 8-dimensional extension by Droescher gives the interactions - and a group structure as in the Standard Model. It also gives two additional gravity forces - one that has the characteristics called quintessence. The observed apparent acceleration in the expansion of the universe can be rationalized with a combination of Heim and Droescher's theories.
- There are 4 independent variables assumed in the theory - h, G, vacuum permittivity and permeability. Combinations of these constants in various mathematical functions derived from Heim theory allows one to derive existing particle masses and their lifetimes to within a reasonable experimental error. It also proposes that other particles not discovered at present, are in existence. The Heim theory also proposes that the fine structure constant is dependent on these 4 independent variables.
- Some of the predictions are still outstanding - e.g. the neutrino masses (see selected results in ).
- A sign that the theory is perhaps undergoing a renewal of interest is a paper published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 2005 authored by Droescher and Haeuser. The paper discusses potential aerospace applications of Heim theory. It has been decided by the Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee of the AIAA to acknowledge the publication with a "best paper of the year" award in July 2005.
Relation to other Theories
The theory shares a similar physical picture, namely a quantized spacetime, with the recently published loop quantum theory (LQT) by L. Smolin, A. Ashtektar, C. Rovelli, M. Bojowald et al. LQT, if proved correct, would stand for a major revision of current physics, while HQT would cause a revolution therein.
The basic theory was developed in near isolation from the scientific community. Heim's handicap led him to prefer this isolation as the effort of communication in a university environment was too much of a strain for a handless, essentially deaf and blind physicist. Heim himself only had one publication in a peer-reviewed journal, and this only at the insistence of his friends, as he himself did not see the need for publication until his theory was complete, even if that should take up to 50 years to be realised. A small group of physicists who learned of Heim's work and studied it in sufficient detail to recognise its potential is now trying to bring it to the attention of the scientific community, by publishing and copy-editing Heim's work and by checking and expanding the relevant calculations. Recently a series of presentaions of Heim theory were made by Haeuser, Droescher and Von Ludwiger. A paper based on the former was published in a peer-reviewed American Institute of Physics journal in 2005 (see table of contents in  and text of paper in ). This article has won a prize for the best paper received in 2004 by the AIAA Nuclear and Future Flight Technical Committee. Von Ludwiger's presentation was to the First European Workshop on Field Propulsion, January 20-22, 2001 at the University of Sussex (see list of talks ). Droescher was able to extend Heim's 6-dimensional theory, which had been sufficient for derivation of the mass formula, to an 8-dimensional theory which included particle interactions, thus re-producing the structures seen in the standard model.
The contents of this article is licensed from www.wikipedia.org under the GNU Free Documentation License. Click here to see the transparent copy and copyright details