Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Hippolyte Bayard (January 20 1807 - 1887) was one of the earliest photographers in the history of photography, inventing his own photography process known as direct positive printing and presenting the world's first public exhibition of photographs on June 24,1839.
His invention of photography actually preceded that of Louis Daguerre, now known as the Father of Photography. The direct positive process involved exposing silver chloride paper to light, which turned the paper completely black. It was then soaked in potassium iodide before being exposed in a camera. After the exposure, it was washed in a bath of hyposulfite of soda and dried. The resulting image was a unique photograph that could not be reproduced. Due to the paper's poor light sensitivity, an exposure of approximately twelve minutes was required. Using this method of photography, still subject matter, such as buildings, were favored. When used for photographing people, sitters were told to close their eyes so as to eliminate the eerie, "dead" quality produced due to blinking and moving one's eyes during such a long exposure.
Bayard was persuaded to postpone announcing his process to the French Academy of Sciences by François Arago, a friend of Daguerre. Arago's conflict of interest cost Bayard the recognition as the first interventer of a photographic process. He eventually gave details of the process to the French Academy of Sciences on February 24 1840 in return for money to buy better equipment.
As a reaction to the injustice he felt he had been subjected to, Bayard created the first staged photograph entitled, Self Portrait as a Drowned Man. In the image, he pretends to have committed suicide, sitting shirtless and leaning to the right. Bayard wrote on the back of his most notable photograph:
The corpse which you see here is that of M. Bayard, inventor of the process that has just been shown to you. As far as I know this indefatigable experimenter has been occupied for about three years with his discovery. The Government which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre, has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the poor wretch has drowned himself. Oh the vagaries of human life....! ... He has been at the morgue for several days, and no-one has recognized or claimed him. Ladies and gentlemen, you'd better pass along for fear of offending your sense of smell, for as you can observe, the face and hands of the gentleman are beginning to decay.
Despite his initial hardships in photography, Bayard continued to be a productive member of the photographic society. He was a founding member of the French Society of Photography. Bayard was also the first photographer to be commissioned to document and preserve architecture and historical statues in France for the Mission Héliographique in 1851 by the Historic Monument Commission. He used a paper photographic process similar to the one he developed to take pictures for the Commission. Additionally, he suggested combining two negatives to properly expose the sky and then the landscape or building, an idea known as combination printing which began being used in the 1850s.
- Self Portrait as a Drowned Man, 1840.
- Specimens, 1842.
- Construction Worker, Paris, 1845-1847.
- Self Portrait in the Garden, 1847.
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