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The Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор) was the 1932–33 famine in Ukraine. This famine was part of the larger famine in the Soviet Union, which also affected the lower Volga region, and northern Caucasus, and in which several million persons died of starvation; estimates vary.
Holodomor may be translated from Ukrainian as deliberate famine. The term is used by those who consider that this was an artificial famine, a deliberate genocide committed as part of Joseph Stalin's collectivization program under the Soviet Union.
The nature and causes of the famine is a controversial, politically-loaded topic, and subject to debate by historians. Russian historians maintain that the famine was a natural consequence of collectivization and associated resistance, exacerbating an already-poor harvest. Others criticize Ukrainian communities as using the term Holodomor to appropriate the larger-scale tragedy of collectivization as their own national terror-famine, thus exploiting it for political purposes.
However, while the course of the events as well as their underlying reasons are still a matter of debate, the decrease of population in Ukraine between 1927 and 1939 by 4 million is confirmed even by the official Soviet statistics. With the expected population natural growth taken into account, an estimated death toll of these events in Ukraine is above 10 million.
Holod means hunger or famine.
Mor is an old East Slavic word meaning:
- massive nonviolent deaths, as in epidemy
- (seemingly nonviolent) actions that cause such deaths
- Famines in Russia and USSR
- Ukraine section of the article Collectivization in the USSR includes a history of the famine
- Walter Duranty
- Robert Conquest
- Findings of the Commission on the Ukraine Famine U. S. Commission on the Ukraine Famine, Report to Congress. Adopted by the Commission, April 19, 1988
- Was the Ukrainian Famine of 1932-1933 Genocide?
- 1932-34 Great Famine: documented view by Dr. Dana Dalrymple
- Joint declaration at the United Nations in connection with 70th anniversary of the Great Famine in Ukraine 1932-1933
- "Fraud, Famine and Fascism: The Ukrainian genocide myth from Hitler to Harvard", by Douglas Tottle. Progress Books, Toronto, (1987), ISBN 0919396518.
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