Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Many historians consider the Huns (meaning "person" in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. They originated from lands between modern day Siberia and Korea, then migrated progressively westward. References in Chinese sources to peoples called the Xiong-Nu (Hsiung-nu) go back to 1200 BC. Their Xiong (匈) rulers, first mentioned as a family in 1766 BC in the story of Chunwei and the fall of the Xia dynasty, may be the ancestors of the later, better-known (to western scholars) Huns, though not all scholars agree. Korean legend takes the stand that an alliance of northern Altaic tribes under a "Huan" ruler from 7193 BC pre-dated the establishment of China.
A group known as the "European Huns" and led by Attila the Hun is considered, with little certainty, to be the western extension of the royal Xiong family centered around Karaganda. Establishment of the first Hun state is one of the first well-documented appearances of the culture of horseback migration in history. These tribespeople achieved superiority over their rivals (most of them highly cultured) by their splendid state of military readiness, amazing mobility and weapons like the Hun bow.
Attila's European Huns, like the eastern Xiongnu formed from groups of unrelated tributary peoples. In the European case Alans, Slavs and especially Gothic tribes all united under the Hun family military elite. Attila's Huns eventually settled Hungary, a country that derives its name from them. Recently, Hungarians who claim to be decendents of Attila have applied to be an officially recognized minority in Hungary. To do so a group must be able to prove that they have lived in the country for more than 100 years and get 1000 signatures on a petition.
Modern day Huns in Hungary describe themselves as peaceful and gentle. They are far removed from the stereotype tribe that raped and pillaged its way across parts of Europe. According to Gyorgy Kisfaludy, who describes himself as the high priest of the Huns, there may be as many as 100,000 Huns in Hungary and beyond its borders. Some commentators have suggested that the move for minority status is just a ploy to receive financial grants.
Germans as "Huns"
In the eatly twentieth century the term "Huns" became one of the derogatory terms for Germans (see, for example, "Kraut"). American and British forces during World War I and World War II commonly used the name. Though Attila's forces would have contained many Goths and other Germanic peoples in addition to his Mongolian tribespeople, this use of the term seems to derive from a simple desire to characterise the Germans as expansionist barbarians. This usage has declined recently.
The Huns also played an important part in early Indian history.
- Main article: Xiongnu
The earliest reference in Chinese sources to a people called the Xiong-Nu (Hsiung-nu) goes back to early 12th century BC, in writings about the campaign by King Wuding (武丁 wǔdīng) of the Shang Dynasty against the Gui Fang 鬼方 (guǐfāng) tribe, which is regarded as a name of one of the Huns' vassal Nu (奴) tribes. Some vague archaeological sources support this account, but await verification. Bronze inscriptions and oracle turtle-back bones from sacrificial worship prove the historical existence of the campaign but the Gui Fang did not necessarily equate to the core Hun clan per se.
Many scholars identify the Xiong Nu Xiong with the Huns because of similar descriptions of their appearance and living habits. (more input here....) Other scholars, confusing the Piong with their Nu serf and vassal tribes, find differences. Still others argue that any common appearance and habits also appear among various other tribes residing on the Mongolian steppes, rather than identifying characteristics specific to the Xiong and the Huns. Nevertheless, all agree that the two peoples shared aspects that are more than a coincidence.
With the exception of the 43-118 AD "North-South" feud, the Hun dynasty survived as a fairly tightly-knit political power until the 4th C. when the Nu (奴) tribes decisively threw off the yoke of the Xiong dynasty. Whether increasing squabbling amongst the Xiong dynasty caused their subjects to lose faith in them, or some other cause occurred, Hun unity came to an end. The rock was shattered and clans claiming the Hun name (Hunnoi, Chionites, Choni, Xiong, etc.) dispersed as nothing more than piratical raiding bands. They appear south in Persia (the Xiyon camel tribes – Chionites – in AD 320, also known as Red Huns), while a portion remained east in China (the Xiong deer people), and finally in one last brilliant flare west in Russia (the Hun horse tribes in AD 360).
The Hua managed to succeed to the Hun heritage in a campaign which spread from Bactria to Europe. After the failure of Xiong's Zhou county the influence of the Hua dragon tribe started to expand. The influence of the northern deer-people retreated north up the Yenisei as the Hua chased a western portion of the Hunnoi (Alchon/Alchoni often called "White Huns" and confused with Hephthalites) into what is present-day Uzbekistan in the late 4th century, while the easternmost branch would later found the Xiong's last eastern dynasty Xia (407-431). The colour names of the European Persian, Bactrian and Chinese Hun tribes may have something to do with their flank designations. Though apparently fleeing China from the Hua in the mid-4th century, later the Huns' Alchon component are recorded as in union with them (Varkun) against the western-most branch.
By 460 the Hua had begun to take over Central Eurasia. The Yuezhi's Hephthal family had become their ruling clan in Xinjiang by 507 and sometime during his rule (507-531) the Hua, now a unit with the Choni, left under Sarosios's father to conquer the Hunnic remnants in the West, leaving their Hephthalite brethren to fend off Juan Juan advances alone and relocate their seat of power with the Indian branch.
After this the Huns as a power unit disappear from history, though certain nations and noble families of Turanian origin continued to carry variations of the name into the present.
List of Important Hun Rulers (Tengrikut/Tangriqut/Shanyu/TarKhaan)
- This list is incomplete and needs correction
|c. 1800-1766 BC||Chungvi / Chunwei / Sunni mythology places|
|? - 270? BC||Ta|
|270 - 240?||Tangriqut?|
|240 - 209||頭曼 (Tumen / Tu-Man Tengriqut)|
|209 - 174||Mo-Tun / Mao-Tun / Batur Tengriqut / 冒顿|
|174 - 161||Ki-Ok / Kokkhan / 老上|
|161 - 126||Chun-Chin / Kunkhan / 車臣|
|126 - 114||I-Tsin-Xien / El'chishye / 伊稚邪|
|114 - 105||Wu-Wey / Uvey / 烏維|
|105 - 102/1||Wu-Shi-Lu-Ir / Uyshilar / 烏師盧|
|102/1 - 101/0||Zhou-Li-Hu / Kulighu / (口句)黎湖|
2nd dynasty (Name unknown)
|101/0 - 96||Chu-Di-Hu / Qutighu / 且提侯|
|96||Possible unknown ruler|
|96 - 85||Hu-Lu-Ku / Hulugu / 狐鹿姑|
|85 - 68||Huandi / Chuangdi / 壺衍提|
|68 - 60||Hsu-Lu and Chuan-Chou / Shuluy Qanghuy / 虛閭權渠|
|60 - 58||Uyanquti / 握衍(月句)提|
|58 - 31|| Ho-Han-Yeh / Khukhenye I / 呼韓邪, opposed by:|
|31 - 20||Fu-Chu-Ley-Ju-Di / Pozhulonuti / 復株累若提|
|20 - 12||Su-Xie-Ju-Di / Shuzhunoti / 搜諧若提|
|12 - 8|| Che-Ya-Ju-Di/Qiyanoti/車牙若提 opposed by...
|8 BC - AD 13||Wu-Zhou-Liu-Ju-Di / Uchilonoti / 烏珠留若提|
4th (The Split) dynasty
|13 - 18||Wu-Ley-Ju-Di / Ulunoti / 烏累若提 (restored)|
|18 - 46|| HuTuIrShiTaoGaoJuDi / GhuduarshiDavganoti / 呼都而尸道皋若提 opposed by...|
|46 - 48||Pu-Nu / Panu / 蒲奴|
North South Feud
From 48, the Hsiung-Nu began a North-South feud which lasted until 98.
Rulers of the Northern (or "Western") Xiong-Nu :
|48 - 83||Pu-Nu / Panu / 蒲奴|
|83 - 84||Sanmolo Otzi / San-Mu-Lu-Tzi|
|84 - 89||Ulugh / Yu-Liu|
|89 - 91/3|| Yu-Chou-Chien
|98-118||Finghay (united North & South) opposed WanSiJuTi|
Rulers of the Southern (or Eastern) Xiong-Nu :
|48-56/55||Hu-Han-Sie-Di / Khukhenye II / 呼韓邪 (第二)|
|55/56-56/57||Chiu-Fu-Yu-Di / Chupunoti / 丘浮尤提|
|56/57-59||I-Fa-Yu-Di / Ilgha Uluti / 伊伐於慮提|
|59-63||XienTungShiChouTi / ShtongsiSuyghuti / 醢僮尸逐侯提|
|63||Kuchi Qilindi / 丘除車林提|
|63-85||HuYehShihChouHuTi / GhushiShisu Quti / 湖邪尸逐侯提|
|85-88||I-Tu-Yi-Lu / Iltu Uluti / 伊屠於閭提|
|88-93||Xiu-Lan-Shi-Hu-Di / Shulan Shisu Quti / 休蘭尸逐侯提|
|93-94||An-Gao / Arqu / 安國|
|94-98||TindushsuQuti / TingTuShiJuHuTi / 亭獨尸逐侯提 deposed by...|
|98-118|| Finghey (Panghu?) opposed by...
Hereafter, the Western/Northern tangriquts are no-more & the Eastern Tangriquts take over the whole empire. Wanchi Shisu Quti inherited Finghey's united empire in 118 but it was never what it used to be.
|118-124||Wanchi Shisu Quti / Wan-Si-Ju-Ti / 萬氏尸逐侯提|
|124-127/128||Wu-Chi-Hu-Shi-Jo / Uzhqushsu Quti / 烏稽侯尸逐提|
|127/128-140/142||Chu-Chi-Ju-Shi-Ju-Ju-Chin / Kutino Shisu Quti / 去特若尸逐就|
|140 - 143||Chu-Xiu|
Some sources indicate that in 140 AD, after Kutino Shisu Quti committed suicide, Tengriqut was not elected and the Hun throne remained vacant till 143 AD.
5th dynasty (Name missing)
|143-147||Hu-Lan-Ju-Shi-Ju-Ju-Chin / Ghoranno Shisu Quti / 呼蘭若尸逐就|
6th dynasty (Name missing)
|147-172/177||I-Ling-Shi-Chou-Chin / Illin Shisu Quti / 伊陵若尸逐就|
|172-177/178||Utno Shisu Quti / 屠特若尸逐就|
7th dynasty (name missing)
|177/178-179||Hu-Ching / Ghuzhin / 呼徵|
8th dynasty (name missing)
|179-188||Chiang-Chu / Qanquy / 羌渠|
|188-195||Di-Chi-Shi-Chou-Hu / Qizi Shisu Quti / 特至尸逐侯|
|195-215/6||Hu-Chou-Chuan / Ghochuqan / 呼廚泉|
|215-290||Xiongnu partitioned into 5 local tribes|
9th dynasty (Bei Han 北漢)
|290||Liu Yuan-Hai (刘元海) or Liu Yuan (劉淵)|
|309-310||Liu He (刘和)|
|310-318||Liu Tsung (劉聰)|
|318||Liu Ts'an (劉粲)|
|318-329||Liu Yao (劉曜) opposed by...|
11th Dynasty Later Zhao
|319-333||Gao Zu (高祖)|
|333-334||Hai Yang Wang (海陽王)|
|334-349||Tai Zu (太祖)|
|349||Shi Shi (石世)|
|349||Shi Zun (石遵)|
|349-350||Shih Jian (石鑒)|
|350||Shih Zhi (石祗)|
|350-352||Ran Min (冉閔) or Shi Min (石閔)|
12th Dynasty (Name ?Kama?)
The Hua & Xiong divided the Huns and drove most of the remaining Huns westwards out of China during their expansion. Kama was a legendary ancestor-King, mentioned in Eastern Hunnic sources, particularly among those who formed the Altyn Oba Horde. There is no one among the Hsiung rulers whose name sounds much like "Kama Tarkhan", but if he existed, he might have been the otherwise unnamed chief who took the Huns westward, into the Ukrainian steppes. He may have been the ruler of Alchoni who pushed the Kidarite Huns into India. His realm may therefore have spread from Ukraine to Bactria. Any last remnants of the Huns east of the Hua in China managed to raise their heads again from 407–431 as the Hun Xia dynasty before coming under the Juan Juan. They (the Deer) later absorbed a Turkic (Blue Wolf) influence and later emerged as the Mongols. Interestingly some Hunnic vocabulary documented by the Chinese still occurs in Japanese while Hungarian allegedly has some words in common with Xia.
|c. 390 ?-c. 411||Uldin (Khan of the Western Huns)|
|? -412||Donatus (Khan of the Eastern Black Sea Huns)|
|? - ?||Octar|
|c. 437-c. 444||Bleda with...|
|c. 437-453||Attila (Idil)|
|fl. c. 457||Tuldila|
|?- < 469||Hernach|
|fl. late 5thC.||Tingiz with...|
|fl. late 5thC.||Belkermak|
|fl. late 490s||Djurash|
|fl. early 500s||Tatra|
|fl. early500s - mid500s|| Sandilkh (Khan of the Utrigurs).
|fl. 560s||Zabergan (Khan of the Kutrigurs)|
|c. 565-c. 600||Bayan 1 (of the Avars)|
Chaotic conditions followed the rise of Avar power in Europe, and the time of the Huns came to a close. Whether the Onoghur were truly a Hun, Bolgar, or proto-Magyar rather than Avar reign remains a matter of debate. However it is from their name that the English name for Magyarország, Hungary, derives, allowing some space for their inclusion in the list of Hun Dynasties.
On July 27, 1901, during the Boxer Rebellion in China, Kaiser Wilhelm II gave the order order to "make the name German remembered in China for a thousand years so that no Chinaman will ever again dare to even squint at a German". This speech, in which Wilhelm invoked the memory of the 5th-century Huns, gave rise to the later derogatory English usage of the latter term for their German enemy during World War I. This usage was reinforced by Allied propaganda throughout the war promoting hatred of the Germans by invoking the ideas that they are brutal savages.
- J. Otto Mänchen-Helfen (ed. Max Knight): The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1973)
- J. Otto Mänchen-Helfen: Huns and Hsiung-Nu (published in Byzantion, vol. XVII, 1944-45, pp. 222-243)
- J. Otto Mänchen-Helfen: The Legend of the Origin of the Huns (published in Byzantion, vol. XVII, 1944-45, pp. 244-251)
- E. A. Thompson: A History of Attila and the Huns (London, Oxford University Press, 1948)
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