Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
River Ĳssel, sometimes called Gelderse Ĳssel (Gelderland Ĳssel) to avoid confusion with its Holland counterpart, is a 120 km long branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overĳssel. It flows north from the city of Arnhem until it discharges into the Ĳsselmeer ("Lake Ĳssel", until 1932 known as the Zuider Zee). It is one of the three major distributary branches into which the Rhine divides itself shortly after crossing the German-Dutch border, the other two being the Nether Rhine and Waal rivers. The name Ĳssel is thought to derive from the Germanic i sala, meaning "dark water".
The Ĳssel once was the lower part of the Oude Ĳssel ("Old Ĳssel", German Issel ), a small river that rises in Germany and is now a 70 km long tributary of the Ĳssel, merging with the main Ĳssel at Doesburg. The connection between the Rhine and the Ĳssel was probably artificial in origin, constructed by the Roman general Nero Claudius Drusus as a defence against Germanic tribes.
- Apeldoorns Kanaal (west) near the town of Dieren
- river Oude Ĳssel (east) at the city of Doesburg
- the Berkel stream (east) at the city of Zutphen
- the Twentekanaal (east) between Zutphen and the village of Eefde (municipality of Gorssel)
- the Schipbeek stream (east) near the city of Deventer
- the Grift stream (west) at the town of Hattem; its lower reaches have been channelised to form the mouth of the Griftkanaal
- the Willemsvaart canal (east) at the city of Zwolle
- the Zwolle-Ĳsselkanaal (east) near Zwolle
At the city of Kampen, river Ĳssel flows into the Ĳsselmeer through a small delta, the branches of which are called, west to east, Keteldiep , Kattendiep , Noorddiep , Ganzendiep and Goot . Of these, the Keteldiep and Kattendiep channels are the main navigational arteries; the Noorddiep has been closed off at both sides.
Railroad bridges (with nearest train station on the left and right bank):
- between Arnhem Velperpoort and Duiven
- between Brummen/Klarenbeek and Zutphen
- between Apeldoorn and Deventer
- between Wezep and Zwolle
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