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# Science Fair Project Encyclopedia

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# Inclusion (mathematics)

In mathematics, inclusion is a partial order on sets. Under this order, AB if A is a subset of B.

When A is a subset of B, the inclusion function (inclusion map, or canonical injection) is the function i that sends each element of A to the same element in B:

i:AB, i(x) = x.

This and other analogous injective functions from substructures are sometimes called natural injections.

## Inclusion as partial order

The order on ordinal numbers is given by inclusion.

For the power set of a set X, the inclusion partial order is (up to isomorphism) the direct product of |X| copies of the partial order on {0,1} for which 0 < 1.

## Inclusion maps

Inclusion maps tend to be homomorphisms of algebraic structures; more precisely, given a sub-structure closed under some operations, the inclusion map will be a homomorphism for tautological reasons, given the very definition by restriction of what one checks. For example, for a binary operation @, to require that

i(x@y) = i(x)@i(y)

is simply to say that @ is consistently computed in the sub-structure and the large structure. The case of a unary operation is similar; but one should also look at nullary operations, which pick out a constant element. Here the point is that closure means such constants must already be given in the substructure.

Inclusion maps in geometry come in different kinds: for example embeddings of submanifolds. Contravariant objects such as differential forms restrict to submanifolds, giving a mapping in the other direction. Another example, more sophisticated, is that of affine schemes, for which the inclusions

Spec(R/I)Spec(R)

and

Spec(R/I2)Spec(R)

may be different morphisms, where R is a commutative ring and I a ideal.

Last updated: 08-15-2005 06:09:57
03-10-2013 05:06:04