Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Independent Subway System
The Independent Subway System (IND, formerly ISS), and even earlier the Independent City-Owned Subway System (ICOS) or Independent City-Owned Rapid Transit Railroad was one of the three systems that is now part of the New York City Subway. For operational purposes, the IND is merged with the BMT division, together known as the "B" Division. The services lettered from A to G are the original IND services; the 's now runs partly on IND trackage, and the and supplement the and .
The IND was conceived as a subway to be fully owned and operated by the City of New York, in contrast to the IRT and BMT companies, whose subways were privately operated on lines owned by the companies, or on new lines built by the City and paid for by a combination of City and company funding.
The Independent System was not called the IND until after Unification in 1940, when the name IND was assigned to match the three-letter initialisms of the and BMT. Previously it was known as the Independent City-Owned Subway System (ICOS), Independent Subway System (ISS) or Independent City-Owned Rapid Transit Railroad.
The first IND line was the Eighth Avenue Line in Manhattan, opened on September 10, 1932; for a while the whole system was colloquially known as the Eighth Avenue Subway. The entire original IND system, as built, was entirely underground in the four boroughs that it served, with the exception of a section of the IND Culver Line containing two stations spanning the Gowanus Canal in the Red Hook/South Brooklyn section of Brooklyn.
In the early 1920s, the mayor of the City of New York proposed a complex series of city-owned and operated rapid transit lines to compete with the BMT and IRT, especially their elevated lines. His plans were called ridiculous, but some aspects couldn't be passed up. After some replanning by the Board of Transportation, there were to be new lines built by slightly different standards. Construction on the new lines would be done in three phases. Phase I is what is today's IND — two major trunk lines in Manhattan with one running under Eighth Avenue and one under Sixth Avenue, a crosstown subway under 53rd Street (connecting with the Eighth and Sixth Avenue Subways) running under the East River to Queens Plaza, that meets with a Brooklyn-Queens crosstown line and travels under Queens Boulevard to about Van Wyck Boulevard, where it turns under Hillside Avenue and runs to 179th Street, and a subway under the Grand Boulevard and Concourse in The Bronx, branching off the Eighth Avenue Subway in Manhattan at 145th Street and St. Nicholas Avenue.
The IND was extended over two pieces of elevated line that were disconnected from the original BMT system: the BMT Culver Line in 1954, and the Liberty Avenue extension of the BMT Fulton Street Line in 1956. The IND had surface running to and across Jamaica Bay, along with elevated tracks on the viaduct on the Rockaway Peninsula in Queens, the same year. The Queens additions occurred when a sizable portion of the Long Island Rail Road was added to the division.
In 1929, plans were drawn for an ambitious "Second System" that would have added massively to the original lines. Provision was made at several key crossing points for some of these lines, but they never advanced further. The Second Avenue Line, one of the main parts of the plan, is still under consideration.
The IND as built
Phase I was completely built. All but a short portion of the Culver Line (over the Gowanus Canal) are underground.
The Bronx and Manhattan
- Concourse Line under the Grand Boulevard and Concourse from 206th Street south to 161st Street, then west into Manhattan and south to the Eighth Avenue Line - parallel to the IRT Jerome Avenue Elevated
- Eighth Avenue Line from 207th Street, south roughly under Broadway, and then under Saint Nicholas Avenue, Eighth Avenue, Greenwich Avenue, Sixth Avenue (with a junction with the Sixth Avenue Line and Houston Street Line), Church Street and Fulton Street to the Cranberry Street Tunnel to Brooklyn - parallel to the IRT Ninth Avenue Elevated
- Sixth Avenue Line from a split from the Eighth Avenue Line at 53rd Street, two blocks east to Sixth Avenue, then south under Sixth Avenue to a junction with the Eighth Avenue Line north of Houston Street, then east under Houston Street and south under Essex Street and Rutgers Street to the Rutgers Street Tunnel to Brooklyn - parallel to the IRT Sixth Avenue Elevated
- Queens Boulevard Line from the 53rd Street Tunnel from Queens, west under 53rd Street past a junction with the Sixth Avenue Line to merge with the Eighth Avenue Line - partly parallel to the IRT Sixth Avenue Elevated connection to the IRT Ninth Avenue Elevated along 53rd Street
East River Crossings
- 53rd Street Tunnel - along the Queens Boulevard Line
- Rutgers Street Tunnel - connecting the Sixth Avenue Line to the Culver Line
- Cranberry Street Tunnel - connecting the Eighth Avenue Line to the Fulton Street Line
Brooklyn and Queens
- Queens Boulevard Line from 169th Street, west under Hillside Avenue, Queens Boulevard, Broadway, Northern Boulevard and 44th Drive to the 53rd Street Tunnel to Manhattan
- Crosstown Line from the Queens Boulevard Line at Queens Plaza, south under Jackson Avenue, Manhattan Avenue, Union Avenue, Marcy Avenue and Lafayette Avenue, coming into the middle of the Fulton Street Line and connecting south into the Culver Line - parallel to the BMT Crosstown Streetcar Line
- Culver Line (originally the Smith Street Line, later the Coney Island Line) from the Rutgers Street Tunnel, south under Jay Street and Smith Street, coming to the surface and turning east over the Gowanus Canal at Ninth Street, then back underground, under Ninth Street, Prospect Park West, Prospect Avenue, Fort Hamilton Parkway and Mcdonald Avenue, ending at Church Street (later extended south along the BMT Culver Line)
- Fulton Street Line from Court Street (now the New York Transit Museum) and the Cranberry Street Tunnel east under Fulton Street to Rockaway Avenue (later extended east along the BMT Liberty Avenue Elevated ) - parallel to the BMT Fulton Street Elevated
The following extra extensions and connections were built after consolidation in 1940:
- Queens Boulevard Line extended east to 179th Street
- Archer Avenue Line from the Queens Boulevard Line at Van Wyck Boulevard south and east to Jamaica Center
- 60th Street Tunnel Connection, connecting the BMT's 60th Street Tunnel to the Queens Boulevard Line
- 63rd Street Line, connecting the Sixth Avenue Line and the Queens Boulevard Line through the 63rd Street Tunnel , and connecting to the BMT 63rd Street Line
- Chrystie Street Connection, connecting the Houston Street Line under Second Avenue to the BMT lines over the Williamsburg Bridge (Nassau Street Line) and Manhattan Bridge (Manhattan Bridge Line)
- Culver Line extended south to the BMT Culver Line
- Fulton Street Line extended east to and over the BMT Liberty Avenue Elevated
Pre-Chrystie Street Connection service is shown here; for more details, see the individual service pages. Terminals shown are the furthest the line reached.
|Washington Heights Express||207th Street - Lefferts Boulevard or Rockaway Park or Far Rockaway (via Eighth Avenue)||still exists|
|AA||Washington Heights Local||168th Street - Hudson Terminal (via Eighth Avenue)||became K|
|BB||Washington Heights Local||168th Street - 34th Street (via Sixth Avenue)||became B|
|C||Bronx Concourse Express||205th Street - Hoyt-Schermerhorn Street (via Eighth Avenue)||no longer operated|
|CC||Bronx Concourse Local||205th Street - Hudson Terminal (via Eighth Avenue)||became C|
|D||Bronx Concourse Express||205th Street - Coney Island (via Sixth Avenue)||still exists|
|E||Queens-Manhattan Express||179th Street - Rockaway Park or Far Rockaway (via Eighth Avenue and Houston Street)||still exists|
|F||Queens-Manhattan Express||179th Street - Hudson Terminal or Second Avenue (via Sixth Avenue)||still exists|
|GG||Queens Brooklyn Local||Forest Hills - Smith-9th Streets (via Crosstown Line)||became G|
|HH||Schermerhorn Street Shuttle||Court Street - Hoyt-Schermerhorn Street||no longer operated|
|HH||Rockaway Local||Euclid Avenue - Rockaway Park or Far Rockaway||became H, then S|
- April 25th, 1921: The New York Transit Commission is formed to develop a plan to reduce overcrowding on the subways.
- September 15, 1929: The IND Second System is first proposed.
- September 10, 1932: The Eighth Avenue Line opens from 207th Street to Chambers Street .
- February 1, 1933: The Cranberry Street Tunnel opens, along with the ends of the Eighth Avenue Line and the Fulton Street Line, from Chambers Street to Jay Street-Borough Hall .
- July 1, 1933: The Concourse Line opens from Norwood-205th Street to 145th Street .
- August 19, 1933: The Queens Boulevard Line opens from Roosevelt Avenue-Jackson Heights to 50th Street on the Eighth Avenue Line. The Crosstown Line opens from Queens Plaza to Nassau Avenue .
- October 7, 1933: The Culver Line opens from Jay Street-Borough Hall to Church Avenue .
- January 1, 1936: The Sixth Avenue Line opens from West Fourth Street-Washington Square (where it splits from the Eighth Avenue Line) to East Broadway .
- April 9, 1936: The Fulton Street Line opens from Court Street to Rockaway Avenue , along with connecting tracks from Jay Street-Borough Hall . The Sixth Avenue Line and Rutgers Street Tunnel open from East Broadway to Jay Street-Borough Hall .
- December 31, 1936: The Queens Boulevard Line opens from Kew Gardens-Union Turnpike to Roosevelt Avenue-Jackson Heights .
- April 24, 1937: The Queens Boulevard Line opens from 169th Street to Kew Gardens-Union Turnpike .
- July 1, 1937: The Crosstown Line opens from Nassau Avenue to Bergen Street .
- December 15, 1940: The full local tracks of the Sixth Avenue Line open from its connection to the Eighth Avenue Line at 59th Street to West Fourth Street-Washington Square , along with the express tracks north of 34th Street-Herald Square .
- December 30, 1946?: The Fulton Street Line opens from Rockaway Avenue to Broadway-East New York .
- June 1, 1946: The Fulton Street Line spur to Court Street closes.
- November 28, 1948: The Fulton Street Line opens from Broadway-East New York to Euclid Avenue .
- December 11, 1950: The Queens Boulevard Line opens from Jamaica-179th Street to 169th Street .
- October 30, 1954: The Culver Line is extended to the BMT Culver Line at Ditmas Avenue , and IND trains operate over the BMT Culver Line to Coney Island-Stillwell Avenue.
- April 29, 1956: The ex-BMT Liberty Avenue Elevated is connected to and becomes part of the Fulton Street Line, extending the Fulton Street Line from Euclid Avenue to Lefferts Boulevard .
- July 1, 1968: The 63rd Street Line opens from 47th-50th Streets-Rockefeller Center to 57th Street . The Sixth Avenue Line express tracks open from 34th Street-Herald Square to West Fourth Street-Washington Square . The Chrystie Street Connection opens.
- December 11, 1988: The Archer Avenue Line opens from Jamaica Center-Parsons-Archer to Briarwood-Van Wyck Boulevard .
- October 29, 1989: The 63rd Street Line opens from 57th Street to 21st Street-Queensbridge , including the 63rd Street Tunnel.
- December 16, 2001: The 63rd Street Line opens from 21st Street-Queensbridge to its merge with the Queens Boulevard Line.
to be merged
Create individual articles
The Sixth Av. Subway
This was the last of the Phase I lines to be completed. This line starts in Brooklyn at the Jay St.-Borough Hall Station. It has direct track connections with the Brooklyn-Queens Crosstown Subway (today, the 6 Av. Local (F) runs on this route south of Jay St.) and the Fulton Street Subway (used during emergency reroutes). It continues North as a 2-track subway under Jay St. to York St. then runs under the East River through the Rutgers St. tunnels to Manhattan where it turns under Essex St. to Houston Street—where it meets two stub tracks and becomes a four track subway-the Houston St. Subway. It travels under Houston St. to 6 Av. where it turns under this thoroughfare and the IND 8 Av. Subway where they both have a transfer station at West 4 St.-Washington Square. They then split up and 8 Av. Subway heads West under Greenwich Av. and then turns North under 8 Av. while the 6 Av. Subway heads North under 6 Av. to 53 St. The Section between W 4 St. and 34 St-Herald Square was originally built as a two track subway with the provision to expand to four tracks later (the express tracks finally were added in the 1960's during the Chystie Street Connection projects—as a result they are placed under the local tracks and PATH which is in the space in which they could have been). The section at 34 St-Herald Square in the heart of Midtown Manhattan was and probably still is the most complicated piece of subway construction ever attempted. When this station was built, several rail lines, streets, utilities and water lines had to be supported or avoided. The 34 St. Station has extreme grades (slopes) at either end because of the construction and overlaying structures. The list below shows the structures in this ares including the Sixth Ave. Subway (deepest objects on bottom of list).
- IRT Sixth Av. Rapid Transit Elevated Structure. (Demolished 1938)
- Intersection Of Broadway, Sixth Av, and 34 St. (including street car tracks—removed later)
- Underground Utilities including water pipes and mains, gas and electric lines
- PATH (Port Authority Trans-Hudson(Subway))
- BMT Broadway Subway
- IND Sixth Av. Subway
- Pennsylvania Rail Tunnels-To Queens and Pennsylvania (Penn) Station
- Sixth Av. Aqueduct (New York's Main Water Supply-200ft Deep)
Leaving this complicated area of rail lines the line continues as a four track subway to 53 St. Here the line splits. Two tracks continue North to the new 63 St. Subway opened in 1988, two others continue west under 53 St. to meet with the 8 Av. Subway, while still two others travel east to merge with the 53 St. Subway and head to Queens.
This line was completed in 1940.
The Fifty Third Street Crosstown Subway
This subway line begins under 53 St. and 8 Av. It is entirely a 2-tracked subway throughout and has connections to both the 8 Av. and 6 Av. Subways. It continues under the East River through the 53 St. Tunnels to Long Island City, Queens, where it meets with the Brooklyn-Queens Crosstown Subway and becomes the Queen Blvd. Subway.
Queens Blvd. Subway
This subway is a 4-tracked subway that begins at Queens Plaza Station in Long Island City, Queens, the meeting point of the Brooklyn-Queens Crosstown Subway from Brooklyn, and the 53 St. Crosstown subway from Manhattan. From here the line is 4 tracks under Northern Blvd. to 37 Av., where the line splits into two, with the two local tracks swinging north under Steinway St. (not a coincidence!), and then east under Broadway to for several dozens of blocks to Queens Blvd. The two express tracks continue under Northern Blvd. until this thoroughfare intersects with Broadway. At this point the express tracks and local tracks rejoin once again forming a 4-track subway under Broadway and Queens Blvd. The line continues under Queens Blvd. to Van Wyck Blvd. (now the Van Wyck Expressway and its service roads). Here the line splits into two branches, one as a 4-track subway under Hillside Av. and runs to 179 St., and the other to the new Archer Av. Subway (opened in 1988). This branch to the Archer Av. Subway was originally a dead end known as the Van Wyck Stub. The Queens Blvd line today is New York City's second most crowded subway line.
Fulton St. Subway
This is primarily a 4-tracked subway running through Central Brooklyn. It starts in Manhattan at Chambers St. and curves South and East under Fulton St. (in Manhattan) It then leaves via the Fulton-Cranberry Sts. Tunnels and enters Brooklyn under Cranberry St. It continues to Jay Street and then turns under that thoroughfare and has a tranfer station and direct track connections with the 6 Av. subway at Jay St.-Borough Hall. It then turns East and meets with two tracks from the crosstown line (although there are no track connections) and two other tracks from the Transit Museum (the Court St. Station, abandoned in 1945.) at the Hoyt-Schermerhorn St. Station—A massive six track-four platform transfer station under Schermerhorn St. The Crosstown operates on the two innermost tracks that are next to each other. On outer sides of these tracks there are platforms separating the Crosstown and Fulton Lines, and yet another set of platforms separating the Fulton St. Line from the tracks to Court St.
Unusual in design, the tunnels outside of the station are completely grade separated.
_________________________ Platform _________________________ Platform _________________________ _________________________ Platform _________________________ Platform _________________________
The Fulton Street Subway now curves out of the station and exchanges switches with the tracks from the Museum. These become the local tracks and the line continues under Fulton Street to East New York, then they curve under Pennsyvania Av. with a stop at Liberty Av. The subway then curves under Pitkin Av. to Euclid Av. After this station the line becomes 2 tracked and the subway stops at its last underground stop, and also its last stop in Brooklyn-Grant Av. The subway now emerges onto the BMT Liberty Av. Elevated (the Queens Portion of the same El that ran over Fulton St—the Fulton St Elevated, which was torn down because of the subway construction that would in a few years when opened, compete with it), crosses the border into Queens, and it's on to the Rockaways.
Brooklyn-Queens Crosstown Subway
The Brooklyn-Queens Crosstown Subway is the only major line in the IND system that is almost entirely a two-tracked subway and only the second such line in the entire system like this (The 14th St.-Eastern District (Canarsie) Local (L) is the only other line of this type. Another oddity about this line is that it is the only major line that does not enter Manhattan at any point.
The Brooklyn-Queens Crosstown Subway starts its journey south at the Queens Plaza Station in Long Island City, Queens, where it diverges from the 53 St. Crosstown Subway described above and travels under Jackson Av. to the Newtown Creek Tunnels, under Newtown Creek, which partially forms the border between Brooklyn and Queens. The line now enters Brooklyn and travels under Manhattan Av. to MacCarren Park, where it does a slight S-curve and then travels under Union Av. to Lafayette Av. where it turns under this thoroughfare and stops at the three tracked-two plaformed Bedford-Nostrand Avs. station. It now heads toward Downtown Brooklyn and the Hoyt-Schermerhorm Sts. Station described above. The line travels to, and then turns along Smith St, gains its second name, The South Brooklyn Subway (although it generally keeps the Brooklyn-Queens Crosstown Subway title to avoid possible confusion with the South Brooklyn Railway (SBK)), and meets with the 6 Av. Subway from Manhattan and becomes a 4-tracked, two level line with two tracks per level and continues to 2nd Pl. where it emerges onto a 4-tracked, one level elevated (The only Phase I Elevated Structure) and runs to around 9th Av., where it crosses the Gowanus Canal on the highest elevated in the system-87.5 ft above grade. At 4th Av., the line re-enters the subway and travels throughout the Park Slope, Windsor Terrace, and Kensington sections respectively of Brooklyn under 9 St., Prospect Park West, private property, Prosect Ave. (today the Prospect Expressway and its Service Roads), Fort Hamilton Parkway, and McDonald Av. Between 7th Av. and Church Av., as on the IND Queens Blvd Subway, the express tracks (which are currently unused, diverge and take a more direct route (under private property). The line emerges onto the BMT Culver Elevated, and it's off to the beach in Coney Island.
Now we will now move onto Phase II, the so-called "Second System".
Phase II of the IND was debutted in 1929. It would have added over 100 miles of new routes in Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and The Bronx. It was claimed that this "Second System", combined with existing IRT, BMT, and IND subways (and elevateds) under construction, would provide subway service within 1/2 miles of anyones doorstep. Pricing-not including acquisition, and equipment costs were estimated at $438 million-much more expensive than the Phase I, whose total cost was $338 million-this including acquisition, and equipment costs, but not long after these plans were unveiled, the Stock Market Crash of 1929 occurred, and the Great Depression was ushered in. These plans essentially became history overnight. After the Great Depression these plans were changed in 1931, 1939, 1940, 1968, and 1972, but again were never realised. This is when the IND planned widespread elevated construction.
The contents of this article is licensed from www.wikipedia.org under the GNU Free Documentation License. Click here to see the transparent copy and copyright details