Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The Republic of Ingushetia (Russian: Республика Ингушетия; Ingush: ГIалгIай Мохк) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). The direct transliteration of the republic's name is Respublika Ingushetiya.
Ingushetia is situated on the northern slopes of the Caucasus.
- Area: ca. 4,000 km².
- Highest point: Mount Stolovaya (2,993 m).
- Maximum N->S distance: no data.
- Maximum E->W distance: no data.
- Average elevation: no data.
Major rivers include:
- Assa River
- Sunzha River
- Terek River
A 150 km stretch of the Caucasus Mountains runs through the territory of the republic.
Climate of Ingushetia is mostly continental.
- Average January temperature: -7°C.
- Average July temperature: +22°C
- Average annual precipitation: 1,200 mm.
- Main article: Administrative division of Ingushetia
The Ingush people are closely related to the Chechens and speak a similar language, belonging to the Vaynakh or North-central Caucasian linguistic family. At 361,057, as per the 2002 census, they make up 77% of the population, followed by the Chechens (95,403 or 20.4%), ethnic Russians (5,559 or 1.19%), Turks (903 or 0.2%) and so on. All in all, 78 distinct ethnic groups are listed for the republic.
- Population: 467,294 (2002)
- Urban: 198,496 (42.5%)
- Rural: 268,798 (57.5%)
- Male: 218,194 (46.7%)
- Female: 249,100 (53.3%)
- Females per 1000 males: 1,142
- Average age: 22.2 years
- Urban: 22.4 years
- Rural: 22.1 years
- Male: 21.4 years
- Female: 22.9 years
- Number of households: 64,887 (with 463,532 people)
- Urban: 28,751 (with 197,112 people)
- Rural: 36,136 (with 266,420 people)
Ingushetia has been a part of Russia since 1810. From 1921 to 1924 it was part of the Soviet Mountain Republic established in the Caucasus. The Ingush Autonomous Oblast was established in 1924. From 1934 to 1992 it was joined to neighboring Chechnya in the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic , except for a brief period following World War II (see below).
During World War II, Joseph Stalin accused the Ingush of collaborating with the Nazis and deported the entire population to Central Asia. Their autonomous territory was dissolved, and the Prigorodny District was transferred to adjacent North Ossetia. While the Ingush were rehabilitated in the 1950s and allowed to return to their homes, Prigorodny District remained part of North Ossetia, and the returning Ingush faced considerable animosity from the Ossetian population that has been settled there.
Tensions exploded after the disintegration of the Soviet Union; the northern Caucausus was the site of the first severe interethnic violence to plague the Russian Federation. In late October 1992, tens of thousands of Ingush were forced from their homes in the Prigorodny District of North Ossetia. This refugee problem has since been a major problem for the beleaguered government of Ingushetia, already faced with soaring unemployment (as high as 50%), a worsening ecological crisis, a high concentration of Russian troops stationed there because of the war in neighboring Chechnya, and a flood of Chechen refugees from that conflict. While some agreements have been reached with North Ossetia concerning the Ingush refugees, the issue is far from being resolved.
With few resources except for mineral water, Ingushetia has been declared a free economic zone to encourage investment. The local government is considering the development of tourism, however this is problematic due to the tense political situation in the region.
Most of Ingushes are Sunni Muslims.
Ingushetia is a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation.
- Official website of Ingushetia (in Russian)
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