Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
|Abbreviation: 内蒙古 (pinyin: Nèi Měnggǔ)|
The striped area is nominally part of Inner Mongolia, but it is administered by Heilongjiang.
|Administration Type||Autonomous region|
|CPC Inner Mongolia Committee Secretary||Chu Bo|
|Area||1,183,000 km² (3rd)|
| Population (2002) |
| 23,790,000 (23rd) |
| GDP (2002)|
- per capita
| 173.4 billion ¥ (24th) |
7290 ¥ (16th)
|Major Nationalities (2000)|| Han - 79%|
Mongol - 17%
Manchu - 2%
Hui - 0.9%
Daur - 0.3%
Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ Öbür Mongghul-un Öbertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū) is an Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. Inner Mongolia is contrasted with Outer Mongolia, which was used by the Republic of China and previous governments to refer to what is covered today by the independent nation of Mongolia plus Russia's Republic of Tuva.
The government of Inner Mongolia uses the name öbür mongghul, or "South (sunny side of mountain) Mongolia", instead of dotood mongghul, which would be the Mongolian translation for "Inner Mongolia". The terms of "Inner/Outer" are derived from Manchu dorgi/tulergi, which are viewed as Sinocentric by some Mongols, who prefer to use North/South (aru/öbür) instead. Some Mongolians use the name Southern Mongolia in English as well.
Inner Mongolia borders, from east to west, the provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and Gansu, while to the north it borders Mongolia and Russia. It has an area of 1.18 million km² and a population of 23.76 million. The capital is Hohhot.
Throughout most of history, various parts of what is now Inner Mongolia alternated in control between Chinese agriculturalists in the south and Hun, Xianbei, Khitan, Nurchen, and Mongol nomads of the north. Under the Manchu-dominated Qing dynasty, Outer Mongolia retained much of its pre-Qing governmental structure; Inner Mongolia was organized into leagues and banners, and what is now eastern Inner Mongolia was part of Manchuria, and administered with the rest of Manchuria by Manchu generals.
During the Republic of China era, Outer Mongolia, with Russian support, passed out of Chinese control. At the same time, Inner Mongolia was subdivided among various provinces, such as Rehe, Chahar, Suiyuan, and Ningxia. Some maps in Taiwan still show the pre-1949 structure. Present-day eastern Inner Mongolia, then part of Manchuria, came under the control of the Japanese puppet state Manchukuo in 1931, and was administered thus until the end of the war in 1945.
In 1937, open war broke out between China and Japan. On December 8 1937, Mongolian Prince Teh Wang declared the independence of Inner Mongolia (except the parts already in Manchukuo) as Mengkiang or Mengkukuo and signed close agreements with Manchukuo and Japan, thereby turning Inner Mongolia to a puppet of the Japanese Empire. The capital was established at Chan Pei, near Kalgan, with the puppet government's control extending around Hohhot. In August 1945, Mengkiang was taken by Soviet and Outer Mongolian troops during Operation August Storm.
Following the end of World War II, the Chinese Communists took over most of Manchuria with Soviet support, and established the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in 1947 following Soviet nationalities policy, out of the parts of Manchuria with Mongol populations (i.e. the part that was formerly in Manchukuo). This included just the eastern section of the present-day region; other areas were added later from other provinces as all of China gradually came under Communist control. Eventually, near all areas with sizeable Mongol populations were incorporated into the region, giving present-day Inner Mongolia its elongated shape.
Most of Inner Mongolia consists of high plateaus. The Daxing'an Mountains (Greater Khingan) cover much of the eastern parts, while the Yinshan Mountains and Langshan Mountains are found in the central regions. The Gobi Desert extends just north of the border with Mongolia. Other deserts include the Mu Us Desert and Hobq Desert , south of the bend in the Yellow River, and the Badain Jaran Desert in the west. The peak of Mount Helan , part of the Helan Mountains along the border with Ningxia, is the highest point in the region with an altitude of 3556 m.
Much of the eastern part of Inner Mongolia is part of the watersheds of the Amur and Liao Rivers; the central region is crossed by the Yellow River (Huang He), which turns north into Inner Mongolia, passes near major cities like Hohhot and Baotou, before flowing back south. The rest of the region is not part of any oceanic watershed.
In general, the climate of Inner Mongolia is continental, with long winters and sharp temperature changes in spring and fall. In recent years, Desertification has become a major environmental problem in Inner Mongolia.
The nine prefecture-level cities are:
- Hohhot (呼和浩特市 Hanyu Pinyin: Hūhéhàotè shì)
- Baotou (包头市 Bāotóu shì)
- Wuhai (乌海市 Wūhǎi shì)
- Chifeng (赤峰市 Chìfēng shì)
- Tongliao (通辽市 Tōngliáo shì)
- Ordos (鄂尔多斯市 È'ěrduōsī shì)
- Hulunbuir (呼伦贝尔市 Hūlúnbèi'ěr shì)
- Baynnur (巴彦淖尔市 Bāyànnào'ěr shì)
- Ulaan Chab (乌兰察布市 Wūlánchábù shì)
The three leagues are:
- Xilin Gol (锡林郭勒盟 Xīlínguōlè méng)
- Alxa (阿拉善盟 Ālāshàn méng)
- Xing'an (兴安盟 Xīng'ān méng)
The 12 prefecture-level divisions of Inner Mongolia are subdivided into 101 county-level divisions, including 21 districts, 11 county-level cities, 17 counties, 49 banners, and 3 autonomous banners. Those are in turn divided into 1431 township-level divisions, including 527 towns, 411 townships, 279 sumu , 17 ethnic townships , 2 ethnic sumu , and 195 subdistricts.
See List of administrative divisions of Inner Mongolia for a complete list of county-level divisions.
Farming of crops such as wheat takes precedence along the river valleys. In the more arid grasslands, herding of goats, sheep and so on is a traditional method of subsistence. Forestry and hunting are somewhat important in the Da-Xingan (Greater Khingan) ranges in the east. Reindeer herding is carried out by Evenks in the Evenk Autonomous Banner.
Industry in Inner Mongolia has grown up mainly around coal, power generation, forestry-related industries, and so forth.
The GDP of Inner Mongolia was 155 billion RMB, which a per capita income of 6463 RMB.
Han Chinese are the largest ethnic group, followed by the Mongols, with the Mongols concentrated mainly on the grasslands and the Han along the river valleys. Other ethnic groups include the Daur, the Evenks, the Oroqin, the Hui, the Manchus, and the Koreans.
Han Chinese of the eastern parts speak dialects of Mandarin, while those in the central parts, such as the Huang He valley, speak varieties of Jinyu, another subdivision of Chinese.
(Jinyu is sometimes classified as a subdivision of Mandarin. For more information, see Chinese spoken language.)
Siqin Gaowa , a famous actress of China, is an ethnic Mongol native to Inner Mongolia.
In the capital city Hohhot:
Elsewhere in Inner Mongolia:
Bashang Grasslands , on the border close to Beijing, is a popular retreat for urban residents wanting to get a taste of grasslands life.
Colleges and universities
- Inner Mongolia University (内蒙古大学)
- Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities (内蒙古民族大学)
- Inner Mongolia University of Technology (内蒙古工业大学)
- Inner Mongolia Agricultural University (内蒙古农业大学)
- Inner Mongolia Normal University (内蒙古师范大学)
- Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology (内蒙古科技大学)
- Inner Mongolia Medical College (内蒙古医学院)
- Inner Mongolia Finance and Economics College (内蒙古财经学院)
- Chifeng University (赤峰学院)
All of the above are under the authority of the autonomous region government. Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.
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