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Iraq Liberation Act
The Iraqi Liberation Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-338) was signed into law by the US President Bill Clinton on October 31, 1998. Its stated purpose was: "to establish a program to support a transition to democracy in Iraq." After findings of past Iraqi military action and denial of United Nations Special Commission on Iraq (UNSCOM) into its country to inspect for weapons of mass destruction, congress found: "It should be the policy of the United States to support efforts to remove the regime headed by Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq and to promote the emergence of a democratic government to replace that regime."
This act required the President to designate one or more qualified recipients of assistance, with the primary requirement being opposition to the present Saddam Hussein regime. In regards to the use of assistance in Iraq for a transition into democracy, the President may provide to the Iraqi democratic opposition organizations designated in accordance with section 5 the following assistance: broadcasting assistance (for for radio and television broadcasting), military assistance (education and training of an army), humanitarian assistance (for fleeing individuals who left under Saddam).
The restrictions on assistance include that any that were engaged in military cooperation with the Saddam Hussein regime are not to be allowed any assistance. The President is to notify congressional committees when requesting assistance further for the country specified in the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.
Reimbursement relating to military assistance in regards to militay education and training are to be made available without reimbursement.
In regards to designation under the Act towards an opposition organization of democracy in Iraq, the criteria for any organization is only that they: include a broad spectrum of Iraqi individuals, groups, or both, opposed to the Saddam Hussein regime; and are committed to democratic values, to respect for human rights, to peaceful relations with Iraq's neighbors, to maintaining Iraq's territorial integrity, and to fostering cooperation among democratic opponents of the Saddam Hussein regime.
Furthermore, the Act details that in relation to a need for War Crimes Tribunals in Iraq: "Consistent with section 301 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993 (Public Law 102-138), House Concurrent Resolution 137, 105th Congress (approved by the House of Representatives on November 13, 1997), and Senate Concurrent Resolution 78, 105th Congress (approved by the Senate on March 13, 1998), the Congress urges the President to call upon the United Nations to establish an international criminal tribunal for the purpose of indicting, prosecuting, and imprisoning Saddam Hussein and other Iraqi officials who are responsible for crimes against humanity, genocide, and other criminal violations of international law."
The Act also details the actions of the United States Government once Saddam Hussein, were he to be removed, should be: "It is the sense of the Congress that once the Saddam Hussein regime is removed from power in Iraq, the United States should support Iraq's transition to democracy by providing immediate and substantial humanitarian assistance to the Iraqi people, by providing democracy transition assistance to Iraqi parties and movements with democratic goals, and by convening Iraq's foreign creditors to develop a multilateral response to Iraq's foreign debt incurred by Saddam Hussein's regime."
A rule of construction was added to this act stating:
"Nothing in this Act shall be construed to authorize or otherwise speak to the use of United States Armed Forces (except as provided in section 4(a)(2)) in carrying out this Act."
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