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Irish Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was a document adopted by Dáil Éireann, the revolutionary parliament of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic, at its first meeting in the Mansion House, Dublin, on 21st January, 1919. Texts of the declaration were adopted in three languages: Irish, English and French.
The Irish Republic was intended to encompass the whole island of Ireland but no such de facto state ever came to be. The new notional state was recognised by no country except Russia, was rivaled by the administration of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland during the Anglo-Irish War, and was ultimately superseded by the Irish Free State in 1922.
By the Declaration of Independence the Dáil claimed to "ratify" the earlier Easter Proclamation of 1916. This proclamation had not been adopted by an elected body but merely by the Easter rebels claiming to act in the name of the Irish people. Unlike the proclamation, the Declaration of Independence was followed by the establishment of some de facto political organs. In its crucial line the declaration pronounced that:
- ..we, the elected Representatives of the ancient Irish people in National Parliament assembled, do, in the name of the Irish nation, ratify the establishment of the Irish Republic and pledge curselves and our people to make this declaration effective by every means at our command
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