Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Islamabad Capital Territory
Islamabad is a city built to be the capital of Pakistan. It lies against the surroundings of the Margalla Hills at the northern end of Pothowar Plateau. It was established in 1960 by the orders of then President General Ayub Khan.
The capital is full of natural terraces and meadows and the southern plain drained by the Kurang River with the Margalla Hills in the north east.
Area and population
The city is divided into eight basic zones:
- Diplomatic Enclave
- Residential Areas
- Educational Sectors
- Industrial Sectors
- Commercial Areas
- Rural Areas and
- Green Areas
Each sector has its own shopping area and public park. The population of the city is around 9,50,000 people with an area of about 910 square kilometers. The city lies at latitudes 33° 49' north and longitudes 72° 24' east with altitudes ranging from 457 to 610 meters.
It offers a healthy climate, pollution free atmosphere, plenty of water and a lush green area. It is a modern and carefully planned city with wide tree-lined streets, large houses elegant public buildings and well-organised bazars/markets/shopping centres.
The average humidity level is 55% with an average rainfall of 1150 millimeters each year. The city is quite moderate in case of its weather. The maximum average temperature is 29C and goes down to average minimum of around 14C.
Islamabad has some of the fine educational institutes of Pakistan, including Quaid-e-Azam University, International Islamic University and National University of Science and Technology.
Quaid-e-Azam University offers courses in a number of subjects. The institute is located in a semi hilly area, east of the Secretariat buildings and near the base of Margala Hills. This Post-Graduate institute is spread over 1500 acres (6 km²).
Major buildings of the campus have been designed in such a way as to form an axial spine with the library in the center. Quaid-e-Azam University now occupies an enviable position in the academic world.
Shah Faisal mosque
The enormous Shah Faisal Mosque sits at the foot of the Margalla Hills. It represents an eight-faceted desert 'tent' supported on four giant concrete girders and surrounded by four 90-metre high concrete minuets. The central 'tent' is faced in white marble and decorated inside with mosaics and a spectacular chandelier.
The mosque was designed by the Turkish architect Vedat Dalokay , and largely financed by donations from Saudi Arabia. About 15,000 people fit inside, with room for another 85,000 in the courtyard.
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