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Islamic Party of Malaysia
PAS positions itself as a party for all Muslims, in contrast to UMNO's secular but Malay-only ideology. Enjoying strong support in rural, more conservative areas, PAS took control of the state of Kelantan in 1990, the first opposition party in independent Malaysia's history to break the UMNO monopoly. In 1999, riding a groundwell of popular protest after the arrest and conviction of former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim, PAS allied itself with the Democratic Action Party (DAP) in the Barisan Alternatif and expanded to take over Terengganu as well in the general election held that year.
PAS has publicly stated its intention to instate sharia law, including the full range of criminal hudud law and its punishments, but has so far been stymied in a court battle since UMNO maintains that this would violate the Constitution. PAS's moves to extend the already implemented sharia laws, such as banning the sale of alcoholic beverages, to non-Muslims as well has caused opposition from Malaysia's Chinese and Indian minorities, propelling the DAP to break off the former alliance.
In the 2004 Malaysian general election, PAS only won seven parliamentary seats. This marks a significant decrease from the 27 parliamentary seats it won in the 1999 general election, more so since one of the seven seats was won because the UMNO candidate was disqualified on a technicality. The party leader, Datuk Seri Abdul Hadi Awang, also lost his parliamentary seat. PAS also lost control of the state of Terengganu, which it had wrested control of in 1999. PAS retained control of the state of Kelantan with a very slim majority of 24 out of 45 seats. 
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