Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
J was originally a capital of I. Some people in the German-speaking world still follow the convention of writing (for example) "Isabel" as "Jsabel" and Jnes as "Ines"; one also sometimes encounters J as a capital of I in Italy.
Petrus Ramus (d. 1572) was the first to make a distinction between I and J. Originally, both I and J were pronounced (see IPA) as , [i:], and [j]; but Romance languages developed new sounds (from former [j] and [g]) that came to be represented as I and J; therefore, English J (from French J) has a sound quite different from I.
In modern standard Italian only foreign or Latin words have J. Until the 19th century, J was used instead of I in diphthongs, as a replacement for final -ii, or in vowels groups (as in Savoja); this rule was quite strict for official writing. J is also used for rendering words in dialect, where it stands for [j], e.g. Romanesque ajo for standard aglio (garlic).
Hebrew also influenced the English J, which in a few cases is used for [j] in place of the more normal Y. The classic example is Hallelujah which is pronounced the same as Halleluyah. See the Hebrew yod for more details.
Juliet represents the letter J in the NATO phonetic alphabet.
In international Morse code the letter J is DitDahDahDah: · - - -
.X XX ..
Meanings for J
J can also refer to:
- an abbreviation for the months of January, June, and July;
- the imaginary unit (), in fields such as physics and electrical engineering where i is traditionally used to denote a changing current);
- one of the three imaginary units of quaternions;
- the joule, the SI derived unit for energy;
- one of the two names of the J/Psi particle in high-energy physics;
- an abbreviation for the Jehovist or Yahwist source, in the documentary hypothesis of the Hebrew Bible;
- the jack in a deck of playing cards;
- a spliff (i.e. an abbreviation for "joint"); and
- J Records, a record label.
- the international licence plate code for Japan;
- As the first letter of a postal code in Canada, J is used for the western and northern regions of Quebec;
- On the New York City Subway system, J is a rapid transit service running from Downtown Manhattan to Jamaica, Queens.
The EBCDIC code for capital J is 209 and for lowercase j is 145.
A capital J can refer to the J programming language.
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