Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
James Taylor (born March 12, 1948) is an American singer-songwriter, born in Boston, Massachusetts. He grew up in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, where his father was the dean of the University of North Carolina Medical School. His family summered on Martha's Vineyard.
Taylor's career began in the mid-1960s, but he found his audience in the early 1970s, singing sensitive and gentle acoustic songs. He was was part of a wave of soft singer-songwriters of the time that also included Carole King, John Denver, Jackson Browne and Carly Simon.
His Greatest Hits album from 1976 was certified diamond and has sold more than 11 million copies.
Taylor's four siblings, Alex , Livingston, Hugh and Kate have also been musicians with recorded albums. (Livingston is still an active musician; Kate was active in the 1970s and did not record another album until 2003.) Taylor's children with Carly Simon, Ben and Sally, have also embarked on musical careers.
Taylor first learned the cello as a child, then switched to the guitar in 1960. His style on that instrument evolved from listening to hymns, carols, and Woody Guthrie, and would later become an easily recognized linchpin of his sound. While attending Milton Academy, a prep school in Massachusetts, Taylor met Danny Kortchmar at Martha's Vineyard and the two began playing folk music together. After dropping out of school, James formed a band with his brother, Alex, then was committed to McLean Hospital in Belmont, Massachusetts due to depression. He believes that this action on his behalf saved his life. He earned a high school diploma while in the asylum, then left and formed a band called the Flying Machine with Kortchmar and Joel O'Brien . The band was signed to Rainy Day Records and released one single, "Brighten Your Night with My Day"/"Night Owl"; the song was not a success.
While living in New York, Taylor became addicted to heroin. After a desperate phone call, his father drove to New York and "rescued" him. In 1968, Taylor moved to London. He was signed to Apple Records after sending a demo tape to Peter Asher (of Peter & Gordon) and released his debut album, James Taylor. The album did not sell very well and Taylor's addiction worsened. Moving back to the United States, Taylor checked into Austin Riggs Hospital in Stockbridge, Massachusetts to try to break his drug problem. By 1969, he was well enough to perform live and had a six-night stand at the Troubadour Club in Los Angeles. On July 20, 1969, he performed at the Newport Folk Festival. Shortly after that, he broke both hands in a motorcycle accident on Martha's Vineyard and was forced to stop playing for several months.
Once recovered, Taylor signed to Warner Brothers Records and moved to California, keeping Peter Asher as his manager and record producer. His second album, Sweet Baby James, was a massive success, buoyed by the single "Fire and Rain", a song about his experience in an asylum and the suicide of a friend. The success of this single and the album, piqued interest in Taylor's first album, James Taylor, bringing it and the single "Carolina on My Mind" back onto the charts.
Taylor worked with Dennis Wilson (of the Beach Boys) on a film, Two-Lane Blacktop , but this was unsuccessful at the time. 1971 saw the release of Mud Slide Slim and the Blue Horizon, another hit album. He won a Grammy Award for his version of Carole King's "You've Got a Friend".
In 1972 (see 1972 in music) Taylor returned with One Man Dog and married Carly Simon, another singer-songwriter. His next album, 1974's Walking Man, was a disappointment but the following one, Gorilla, was a success, partially because of a successful single, a cover version of Marvin Gaye's "How Sweet It Is (To Be Loved by You)". This was followed by In the Pocket in 1976, and then a Greatest Hits album that included some rerecordings of Apple Records-era material. It became a huge hit and remains Taylor's best-selling album.
Taylor and Simon had two children, Benjamin ("Ben") and Sarah ("Sally"). Simon was unhappy with Taylor's extended absences due to touring; he rejected an ultimatum from her that he spend more time with his children and they eventually divorced in 1983.
After collaborating with Art Garfunkel and briefly working on Broadway, Taylor took a two-year break, reappearing in 1979 with Flag. The album was a success, though there were no hit singles from it. Taylor also performed at the No Nukes concert in Madison Square Garden, then appeared on the album and film from the concert.
Beginning in 1985 Taylor staged a career resurgence. By this time he had recovered from his drug problems. That's Why I'm Here started a series of studio recordings that, while spaced further apart than his previous records, showed a more consistent level of quality. He toured regularly, and was especially popular on the American summer outdoor amphitheatre circuit. His concerts feature songs from throughout his career and consummate musicianship from his band and backup singers. The 1993 two-disc (LIVE) album captures this well, with a highlight being Arnold McCuller 's descants in the codas of "Shower the People" and "I Will Follow".
Taylor's two albums of original material from the 1990s were notably successful: his thirteenth album, New Moon Shine, went platinum in 1991, and he won the coveted Grammy for Best Pop Album in 1998 for Hourglass.
Flanked by two greatest hits releases, the new October Road appeared in 2002 to a receptive audience. It featured a number of quiet but sophisticated instrumental accompaniments and passages, one of which won the corresponding Grammy. In 2004, with his Columbia/Sony record contract having concluded, he released with distribution through Hallmark Cards; it continued the accompaniment trend.
Always visibly active in environmental and progressive causes, in October 2004 Taylor joined the "Vote for Change " tour, playing a series of concerts in American swing states. These concerts were organized by MoveOn.org with the general goal of mobilizing people to vote for John Kerry and against George W. Bush in that year's Presidential campaign. Taylor's appearances were joint performances with the Dixie Chicks.
Awards and recognition
- Best Pop Vocal Performance, Male, 1971, "You've Got a Friend"
- Best Pop Vocal Performance, Male, 1977, "Handy Man"
- Best Pop Album, 1998, Hourglass
- Best Pop Vocal Performance, Male, 2001, "Don't Let Me Be Lonely Tonight"
- Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocalist(s), 2002, "Mean Old Man", arrangement by Dave Grusin
- Best Country Collaboration With Vocals, 2003, "How's the World Treating You", with Alison Krauss
- James Taylor (1968)
- Sweet Baby James (1970)
- James Taylor and the Original Flying Machine (1971) - recorded 1966-1967
- Mud Slide Slim and the Blue Horizon (1971)
- One Man Dog (1972)
- Walking Man (1974)
- Gorilla (1975)
- In the Pocket (1976)
- Greatest Hits (1976)
- JT (1977)
- Flag (1979)
- Dad Loves His Work (1981)
- That's Why I'm Here (1985)
- Never Die Young (1988)
- New Moon Shine (1991)
- (LIVE) (1993)
- (Best LIVE) (1994)
- Hourglass (1997)
- Greatest Hits Volume 2 (2000)
- October Road (2002)
- The Best of James Taylor (2003)
- James Taylor: In Concert (1982) - CBS/FOX laserdisc of a 1979 concert in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio
- James Taylor: In Concert (1988)
- Squibnocket (1993) - Tour rehearsals on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts
- Live at the Beacon Theatre (1998) - Recording of a show in New York City
- Pull Over (2002) - Recording of a 2001 show in Chicago, Illinois
- White, Timothy (2002). James Taylor: Long Ago and Far Away. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0711991936.
- The Official James Taylor site
- James Taylor Online (unofficial web site)
- James Taylor profile, NNDB
- James Taylor Lyrics @ Wikilyrics
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