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Javier Pérez de Cuéllar
Javier Pérez de Cuéllar Guerra (born January 19, 1920 in Lima, Peru) was the fifth Secretary-General of the United Nations, from January 1 1982 to December 31 1991. In 1995, he ran unsuccessfully against Alberto Fujimori for President of Peru. He was Prime Minister of Peru from November 2000 until July 2001, during the turbulent period following Fujimori's resignation over corruption charges. In September 2004, he stood down from his position as Peru's Ambassador to France.
Pérez de Cuéllar joined the Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1940 and the diplomatic service in 1944, serving subsequently as Secretary at the Peruvian embassies in France, the United Kingdom, Bolivia, and Brazil. He later served as ambassador of Peru to Switzerland, the Soviet Union, Poland, and Venezuela.
He was a member of the Peruvian delegation to the General Assembly at its first session in 1946 and a member of the delegations to the 25th through 30th sessions of the Assembly. In 1971, he was appointed permanent representative of Peru to the United Nations, and he led his country's delegation to all sessions of the Assembly from then until 1975.
In 1973 and 1974, he represented his country in the Security Council, serving as President of the Council at the time of the events in Cyprus in July 1974. On 18 September 1975, he was appointed Special Representative of the Secretary-General in Cyprus – a post he held until December 1977, when he rejoined the Peruvian Foreign Service.
On 27 February 1979, he was appointed as United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Special Political Affairs. From April 1981, while still holding this post, he acted as the Secretary-General's Personal Representative on the situation relating to Afghanistan. In that capacity, he visited Pakistan and Afghanistan in April and August of that year in order to continue the negotiations initiated by the Secretary-General some months earlier.
United Nations Secretary-General
On December 31 1981, Pérez de Cuéllar succeeded Kurt Waldheim as Secretary-General and was re-elected for a second term in October 1986. During his two terms, he led mediations between Britain and Argentina in the aftermath of the Falklands War and promoted the efforts of the Contadora Group to bring peace and stability to Central America. He also interceded in the negotiations for the independence of Namibia, the conflict in Western Sahara between Morocco and the Polisario Front, and the Cyprus issue. His second term as Secretary-General concluded in January 1992.
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