Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Jedburgh (Jedart or Jethart in Scots) is a royal burgh in the Scottish Borders, lying on the Jed Water , a tributary of the River Teviot. It lies only 10 miles from the border with England, and is dominated by the substantial ruins of Jedburgh Abbey . Other notable buildings in the town include Mary, Queen of Scots' House and Jedburgh Castle Jail , now a museum.
Its proximity to England made it historically subject to raids and skirmishes by both Scottish and English forces. The town's population in 2001 was 4,090. This writeup will look at some of Jedburgh's long history before looking at the modern town and some of the towns in the nearby area.
A church had been at Jedburgh since the 9th century, and David I made it a priory between 1118 and 1138, housing Augustinian monks from Beauvais in France. The abbey itself was founded in 1147. Border wars with England in the 16th century left the abbey a magnificent ruin, still worth a visit today.
The deeply religious Scottish king Malcolm IV died at Jedburgh in 1165, aged 24. His death was thought to be brought on by excessive fasting.
David I had also erected a castle at Jedburgh, and in 1174, it was one of five fortresses ceded to England. It was an occasional royal residence for the Scots but captured by the English so often that it was eventually demolished in 1409, when it was the last English stronghold in Scotland.
In 1258 Jedburgh had also been the focus of royal attention, with negotiations between Scotland's Alexander III and England's Henry III over the heir to the Scottish throne, leaving the Comyn faction dominant. Alexander III was also to marry at the abbey in 1285.
Mary, Queen of Scots stayed at a house in the town in 1566 which is now a museum. In 1745, Bonnie Prince Charlie's Jacobite army passed through the town on its way to invade England, and the Prince also stayed here. The Castle Jail opened in 1823.
"Jeddart" or "Jethart Justice ", where a man was hanged first, and tried afterward, seems to have arisen from one case of summary execution of a gang of villains.
Several notable people were born in the town, including the actress Deborah Kerr, in 1921. Tory MP Michael Ancram was born here in 1945, and Jim Kerr of Simple Minds was born in 1959. James Thomson (1700-1748) who wrote Rule Britannia, was born nearby, and educated here. David Brewster, inventor of the kaleidoscope was also born in Jedburgh.
The town today
The ruined abbey was the site of a major [[archaeology|archaeological dig in 1986. It is open to the public, as is Jedburgh Castle Jail . Borders traditions like the annual Callants Rideout and bands of pipes and drums add local colour, and delicacies include Jethart Snails and Jeddart Pears . Another annual event is the Jedart Haund Baw game. The Canongate Brig dates from the 16th century, and there are some fine riverside walks. The Capon Oak Tree is reputed to be 900 years old, and Newgate Prison and the town spire are among the town's older buildings. The town's industries include textiles, tanning and glove-making, corn mills, and electrical engineering.
Other towns of interest include Kelso, Hawick, Galashiels, Selkirk, and Melrose. There are abbeys at Melrose, Kelso and Dryburgh , and Kelso boasts a fine cobbled square. All the border towns are famous for their rugby, and Galashiels has associations with William Wallace, Robert the Bruce, and the earls of Douglas. Selkirk was where Wallace was declared Guardian of Scotland , and Melrose was the scene of a battle in 1526 over the stewardship of James V.
- Jed-Forest Rugby Football Club
The contents of this article is licensed from www.wikipedia.org under the GNU Free Documentation License. Click here to see the transparent copy and copyright details