Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
|Governor||Syed Sibtey Razi|
|Chief Minister||Arjun Munda|
| 79,700 km²|
- Total (2001)
|Date of formation||November 15, 2000|
| 1006 km|
Jharkhand (झारखंड) is a state of India. It was carved out of the southern portion of Bihar state on 15th November, 2000. The region is also known as Vananchal. The word Vananchal is derived from combination of two Hindi words: "Vana" meaning forests, and "anchal" meaning area - thus the word Vananchal indicates a land mass of green forests and cool fountains.
Jharkhand has unparalleled mineral wealth and forestry products together with excellent human resources waiting in the wings to take off in the current millennium. Shri A P J Abdul Kalam, the Present of India, in his book, Ignited Minds have fondly mentioned of Jharkhand several times, on pages 18, 31, 153-168 and 184. In one place, the President tells that he has visited Jharkhand a number of times and has been struck by the tremendous resources that wait to be harnessed in the state (of Jharkhand).
In modern times, the demand for a separate Jharkhand state can be traced to early 1900s, when Jaipal Singh, the Oxford educated Captain of 1928 Olympics and Gold Medal winner put forth an idea for a separate state consisting of southern districts of Bihar. Over decades, the idea remained alive in some form or the other. On 2nd August, 2000, the Parliament of India passed the Bihar Reorganization Bill to create the state of Jharkhand, and 18 districts of Bihar were carved out to form Jharkhand state on 15th Novemebr, 2000.
The roots to Jharkhand go far beyond the 15th November, 2000, when it was carved out of Bihar as the 28th State of the Union of India. Status and concept of Jharkhand is over 2 millenniums (millennia) old and some historians have traced a distinct geo-political, cultural position of Jharkhand even before the period of Magadha Empire. In recent times, according to a legend, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa had declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13th century. Thereafter, during the Mughal Empire period, the Jharkhand area was known as Kukara area. After year 1765, this area came under the control of British Empire and was known as "Jharkhand" - the Land of 'Jungles' (forests) and 'Jharis' (bushes), denoting, in fact, a geographical land mass interspersed with rolling hillocks covered with evergreen forests and criss-crossed by innumerable springs with natural water, sometimes water mass turning into majestic and enchanting flow of water falls thundering down with a sound more musical than the best musical notes. Really, Jharkhand located on Chhota Nagpur Plateau and Santhal Parganas unfolds before mind's eye a haven where one can savour the elegance of nature to the hilt.
Movement for Indian Independence - Jharkhand Timelines
The subjugation and colonization of Jharkhand region by the East India Company resulted into spontaneous resistance from the local people. About one hundred years before India’s First War of Independence (1857), adivasis of Jharkhand had repeatedly revolted against the British colonial rule:
- 1772-1780 Paharia revolt
- 1780-1785 Tilka Manjhi led the tribal revolt and managed to injure the British army Chief. In 1785, Tilka Manjhi was hanged to death in Bhagalpur
- 1795-1800 Tamar revolt
- 1795-1800 Munda revolt under the leadership of Vishnu Manaki
- 1800-1802 Munda revolt under the stewardship of Dukhan Manaki of Tamar
- 1819-1820 Munda revolt in Palamu under the leadership of Bhukan Singh
- 1832-1833 Khewar revolt under the leadership of Bhagirath, Dubai Gosai and Patel Singh
- 1833-1834 Bhumji revolt under the leadership of Ganga Narain of Birbhum
- 1855 Santhals waged war against the permanent settlement of Lord Cornwallis
- 1855-1860 During late 1850's Sidhu had accumulated about ten thousands Santhal to run parallel government against British rule. The basic purpose was to collect taxes by making his own laws. British Government had announced an award of Rs. ten thousand to arrest Sidhu and his brother Kanhu
- 1856-1857 Martyr Sahid Lal, Vishwanath Shahdeo, Sheikh Bhikhari, Ganpatrai and Budhu Veer led a movement against the British Government during India’s First War of Independence (1857), also called Sepoy Mutiny
- 1874 Kherwar Movement shot into fame under the leadership of Bhagirathi Manjhi
1895-1900 Movement against the British rule led by Birsa Munda (born 15th November, 1875). Birsa Munda was captured by British forces and declared dead on 9th June, 1900 in Ranchi Jail, due to Cholera, according to records of the British colonial government.
All above cited uprisings againt the British Raj and resistance of 18th and 19th centuries in the Indian state Jharkhand were quelled by the British through massive deployment of troops across the region In 1914 Tana Bhagat movement started which had the participation of more than 26000 tribals and it got merged with satyagrah and civil disobedience, led by Mahatma Gandhi
Geography & climate
Most of the state lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau, which is the source of the Koel , Damodar, Brahmani , Kharkai , and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand. Much of the state is still covered by forest. Forest preserves support populations of tigers and Indian elephants.
Flora & Fauna
Betla National Park (Palamu), 25 Kms from Daltonganj covers an area of about 250 sq kms. The national park has a large variety of wild life like tigers, elephants, bisons locally called gaurs, sambhars, hundreds of wild boar and 15 to 20 feet long python, herds of spotted deer (cheetals ), rabbits and foxes. The mammalian fauna to be seen at Betla National Park also include langurs, rhesus, blue bull and wild boars. The lesser mammals are the porcupine, hare, wild cats, honey badgers, jackals, malabar giant squirrel and mangoose wolf , antelope, etc. In 1974, the park was declared Project Tiger Reserve.
The variety and diversity of flora and fauna found in Jharkhand state may be assessed from the fact that the Project Tiger Reserve of Palamu, is abode to hundreds of species of flora & fauna , as indicated within brackets: mammal (39), Snakes (8), Lizards (4), Fish (6), Insects (21), Birds (170), seed bearing Plants & Tress (97) , Shrubs & Herbs (46), Climbers, Parasites & semi-Parasites (25), and Grasses & Bamboo (17).
The Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary, with scenic beauties, 135 Kms from Ranchi, is set in an ecosystem very similar to Betla National Park of Palamu.
One Zoological Garden is also located about 16 km from Ranchi, and a number of mammalian fauna have been collected there for visitors.
Jharkhand has a population of 26.90 million, consisting of 13.86 million males and 13.04 million females. The sex ratio is 941 females to 1000 males. The population consists of 28% tribals, 12% Scheduled Castes and 60% others. There are 274 persons for each square kilometer of land. However, the population density varies considerably from as low as 148 per square kilometer in Gumla district to as high as 1167 per square kilometer in Dhanbad district.
Jharkhand has remained a home to a number of tribal communities since time immemorial. Some of the districts have a predominant tribal population. Major tribal communities are Santhal , Oraon. Ho, Munda, Kharia , and Kharwar .
The geographical area now comprising Jharkhand was earlier part of Bihar. The area has witnessed migration of people from the adjoining areas of Bihar and West Bengal for last several decades. Industrial and mining centres like Jamshedpur, Dhanbad and Ranchi have attracted people from all parts of India.
Jharkhand is a rich state of poor people. It has concentration of some of country’s highly industrialized cities like Jamshedpur and Bokaro. On the other hand, it has several towns and innumerable villages with sub-standard civic amenities. Urbanization ratio is only 22.25% and the per capita income is US$ 90 only.
Jharkhand has immense mineral resources: minerals ranging from (ranking in the country within bracket) from iron ore (1st), coal (3rd), copper ore (1st), mica (1st), bauxite (3rd), Manganese, lime stone, china clay, fire clay, graphite (8th), kainite (1st), chromite (2nd), asbestos (1st), thorium (3rd), [[yemenite[[ (2nd) sillimanite, uranium (1st) and even gold (6th) and silver and several other minerals. Large deposits of coal and iron ore support concentration of industry, in centers like Jamshedpur, Bokaro and Ranchi.
Government & Politics
The state is headed by a Governor, who is appointed by the President of India. However, the real executive power rests with the Chief Minister and the cabinet. The political party or the coalition of political parties having majority in the Legislative Assembly forms the Government.
The administrative head of the State is called Chief Secretary, under whose jurisdiction a hierarchy of officials drawn from the Indian Administrative Service / State Civil Services function.
The judiciary is headed by the Chief Justice and Jharkhand has a separate High Court, located in Ranchi.
The state was formed with 18 districts, which were formerly part of Bihar. Some of these districts were reorganized to form 4 new districts, namely, Latehar, Saraikela Kharsawan, Jamtara and Sahebgunj. Presently, the state has 22 dsitricts:
Language, Literature & Culture
Jharkhand is home to a number of languages belonging to three major language families. Indo-Aryan languages include Sadri , Hindi, Urdu, Bengali. Jharkand is also home to the Munda languages Korku, Santhali, Mundari, Bhumij, Paharia and Ho, and the Dravidian languages Korwa, Oraon, and Sauria Paharia.
On account of salubrious climate, Jharkhand, particularly its capital Ranchi, has been like a health resort. As long back as in 1918, facilities were set up for treatment of mentally challenged – Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi.
In certain areas of Jharkhand, poverty and consequently under nutrition, has given rise to diseases like tuberculosis (TB). In fact, TB has assumed epidemic proportions in certain areas of the state. For management and treatment of such diseases, organizations like Ramakrishna Mission through Ramakrishna Mission Tuberculosis Sanatorium (set up in 1948), Ranchi, has been doing exemplary work, and supplementing the efforts of the Government and other agencies. Likewise, in the field of treatment of cancer, Tata Memorial Hospital, Jamshedpur, is rendering pioneering work.
Although several public and private health facilities are available in the state, overall infrastructure for dispensing health related services require improvements.
The literacy rate in Jharkhand is only 54.13% (2001) and female literacy rate is still lower at 39.38%.
Jharkhand has a network of government and privately run schools, althogh standard of teaching considerably vary, from place to place, as also from school to school. Several schools are run by christian missionaries (of the Roman Catholic Church, Gossenor , Evengelical and Lutheran Church and the Church of North India) and they have contributed to take educational to the remotest part of the state.
After 10 years of schooling, students can join 2 years of Intermediate course (or +2 courses) in Arts, Science and Commerce. This is followed by 3 years of degree courses. A number of non-technical colleges are located in bigger cities as well as in small towns. Some studentds choose to join 3 years diploma courses offered by Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs).
Jharkhand has 5 Universities: Ranchi University , Ranchi; Sidhhu Kanhu University , Dumka; Binova Bhave University , Hazaribagh; Birsa Agricultural University , Kanke, Ranchi; and, Birla Institute of Technology (BITS-Mesra, a deemed university), Ranchi. There are only 2 medical colleges in the state, one each located in Ranchi and Jamshedpur. Apart from BITS-Mesra, other 2 engineering colleges are Regional Engineering College, Jamshedpur and Bihar Institute of Technology , Sindri, Dhanbad. The famous Indian School of Mines (ISM), eastablished in 1926, is located at Dhanbad and the Xavier Labour Relation Institute , widely known as XLRI, founded in 1949, is located in Jamshedpur.
As the institutions of higher studies fall short of state’s requirement, many students, after completing schooling in the state, move away to places like New Delhi, Karnataka and several other locations for higher technical and non-technical studies.
Hindi newspapers like the Ranchi Express and the Prabhat Khabar are main newspapaers, published from the state capital, Ranchi and are available in almost all parts of the state. All important Indian newspapers, in Hindi, English and Bengali are also available in bigger cities by the afternoon and with a day’s delay in smaller towns. Most of the national magazines in Hindi, English and Bengali are regularly available in bigger cities and at other places supply may be arranged through newspaper vendors.
All India Radio is the only radio station in Jharkhand and covers the entire state. Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster, is also available in almost all parts of the state. Bigger cities of Jaharkhand is served by all television channels available in India and channels are received through cable. In some interior regions, channels are received via satellite dishes.
Landline telephone connectivity is provided by Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) and covers almost all parts of the state. Cellular service, covering all major centres of the state, is provided by BSNL as well as by the Reliance Infocomm. Internet connectivity is available in most of the district headquarters, but broadband connectivity is not widely available.
Transport & Infrastructure
References & Internal Links
- Jharkhand State Government
- Jharkhand News and clippings related to Ranchi
- The Ranchi Express
- The Prabhat Khabar
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