Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
John Newton (ACW)
- For the the English clergyman and songwriter, best known for the hymn, "Amazing Grace", see John Newton
Newton was born in Norfolk, Virginia, a city his father represented in the U.S. Congress for 31 years, He ranked second in the U.S. Military Academy class of 1842 and was commissioned in the Corps of Engineers. He taught engineering at the Military Academy (1843–46) and constructed fortifications along the Atlantic coast and Great Lakes (1846–52). He was a member of a special Gulf Coast defense board (1856) and Chief Engineer, Utah Expedition (1858).
Though a fellow Virginian, Newton did not follow Robert E. Lee but stood firm for the Union. Newton helped construct Washington defenses and led a brigade in the Peninsula Campaign. In the Maryland Campaign, at South Mountain, he led a bayonet charge that resulted in taking the enemy position, and also fought at the Battle of Antietam.
As a division commander in the VI Corps, he stormed Marye's Heights in the Battle of Fredericksburg. After that disastrous defeat, he and other generals journeyed to see President Abraham Lincoln and informed him of their lack of confidence in Army of the Potomac commander Ambrose E. Burnside. This was one of the causes of Burnside's relief in January, 1863, but it also wounded Newton's career; his appointment to major general on March 30, 1863, was withdrawn the following year when his involvement was understood.
In the Battle of Chancellorsville, he was wounded at the Salem Church. At Gettysburg, he replaced the slain John F. Reynolds in command of the I Corps and led it through the defense of Pickett's Charge. In the Atlanta Campaign, he commanded the 2nd Division, IV Corps, William T. Sherman's old command. He served under Sherman, who regarded him highly. At the Battle of Peachtree Creek, he prevented a dangerous Confederate movement against Sherman and his rapidly constructed works allowed him to turn back the Confederate thrust, a victory that put his official military career back on track.
Returning to the Corps of Engineers, Newton oversaw improvements to the waterways around New York City and to the Hudson River above Albany. He also had charge of New York Harbor defenses until he was appointed Chief of Engineers in 1884. He is famed for blowing up New York's Hell Gate Rock with 140 tons of dynamite detonated on October 10, 1885. He retired from the Army in 1886 and served as Commissioner of Public Works, New York City (1886–88), and as President of the Panama Railroad Company (1888–95). He died in New York City and is buried at West Point National Cemetery.
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