Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
|District||Johor Bahru District|
- Total (City)
- City (2004)
Johor Bahru, also spelled Johor Baru or Johore Bahru and near-universally abbreviated as JB, is the largest city and capital of the state of Johor, in southern Malaysia. It is the second largest city in Malaysia, after the national capital, Kuala Lumpur. With a population of 500,000 (1.5 million people in the metropolitan area), the city is an important industrial, tourism and commercial hub. Tourism is especially important, and the city receives 60% of the country's annual 16 million foreign tourists via bridge and road links to Singapore.
Johor Bahru was founded in 1855 by Temenggung Daeng Ibrahim , the father of Sultan Abu Bakar, one of the best-remembered of all Malay Sultans. The town was originally named Tanjung Puteri, and it had its beginnings as a small Malay fishing village. Sultan Abu Bakar changed the name to Johor Bahru when he proclaimed it the capital of his kingdom in 1866, after he moved the seat of government from the old capital at Teluk Belanga in Singapore.
Sultan Abu Bakar was descended from Temenggong Abdul Rahman, the local chief who signed the initial treaty with the British when they sought permission to lease Singapore island in 1819. Much of the prosperity Johor enjoys today can be traced directly to Sultan Abu Bakar's success in persuading British and Chinese entrepreneurs to invest in agricultural estates in the area. Sultan Abu Bakar took a great interest in planning and laying out his royal city of Johor Bahru; consequently, much of the city today bears his name and marks. For example, the Royal Abu Bakar Museum and Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque are named after him.
Johor Bahru has witnessed a few major Malaysian historical events such as the establishment of the leading political party in Malaysia, UMNO (United Malays National Organisation), in 1946. With the coming of the independence of Malaysia, Johor Bahru has witnessed massive development under the Malaysian government. As of today, thousands of Singaporeans have visited Johor Bahru daily, from commercial to recreational purposes, which has let to a gain in the city's economy.
Johor Bahru metropolitan area contains the following local councils:
- Johor Bahru City Council (Majlis Bandaraya Johor Bahru)
- Johor Bahru Tengah Municipal Council (Majlis Perbandaran Johor Bahru Tengah)
- District Council of Kulai (Majlis Daerah Kulai)
- Local Authority Of Bandar Tenggara (Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan Bandar Tenggara)
- Local Authority of Pasir Gudang (Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan Pasir Gudang)
- District Council of Pontian (Majlis Daerah Pontian)
- District Council of Kota Tinggi (Majlis Daerah Kota Tinggi)
In a recent report by The Star Newspaper, the state of Johor was listed by the federal government as one with the highest budget deficit among the federal states of Malaysia.
Johor Bahru is located at 1°29′ N 103°44′ E. It has a total area of 185 Sq. Km. It is situated on the Straits of Johor (also know as the Straits of Tebrau), which separate Malaysia and Singapore. Metropolitan Johor Bahru occupies extensive coastal land consisting of ecologically rich swamp areas and important river systems such as Sungai Johor, Sungai Pulai and Sungai Tebrau.
As one of the three main urban centres on the Malaysian peninsula (Kuala Lumpur and Penang being the other two), Johor Bahru is an important industrial, logistical and commercial centre. Its major industries include electronics, resource and petrochemical refining, and ship-building.
Johor Bahru is often thought of as Singapore's hinterland, similar to what Shenzhen is to Hong Kong. The presence of Singapore-owned companies and tourists is significant. Johor Bahru's many shopping complexes cater to tourists from Singapore who visit the city for shopping and entertainment, taking advantage of the relatively stronger Singapore dollar. As such, Johor Bahru's retail scene is quite developed for a city of its size. The main shopping districts are located within Johor Bahru city, with a few large malls located in the suburbs.
The heavy industrial areas are Pasir Gudang and Tanjung Langsat , located east of the metropolitan area. They contain clusters of refinaries, chemical processing plants, and ship-building factories. Light to medium industrial areas are mainly located north and north-west of the metropolitan area in Tebrau, Tampoi, Senai, Skudai and Kulai.
Johor Bahru Central Business District (CBD) is located on the southern tip of the metropolitan area. Two major highways link the CBD to outlaying suburbs, with Tebrau Highway linking to the north-east and Tun Abdul Razak (TAR) Highway/Senai-Skudai Highway linking to the north-west. Pasir Gudang Highway and the connecting Johor Bahru Parkway crosses Tebrau Highway and TAR Highway at about midway and serves as the middle ring road of the metropolitan area.
Additionally, the Johor Bahru Inner Ring Road controls traffic in and around the CBD. Access to the national expressway system is possible via the North-South Expressway, with entry-exit points located strategically within the metropolitan area. Additionally, the Causeway links the CBD to the city-state of Singapore with a six-lane road and a railway line. The Second Crosslink located west of the metropolitan area was constructed in 1997 to help alleviate the congested Causeway. It is linked directly to Johor Bahru Parkway.
Senai International Airport is located north-west of the metropolitan area, and it served by regional airlines and national airlines. The Port of Tanjung Pelepas , located west of the metropolitan area, is Malaysia's biggest shipment hub. Johor Port (or Pasir Gudang Port), located east of the metropolitan area, is one of Malaysia's most important commodity seaports.
Johor Bahru also houses three radio stations: Best 104 which is the country's first private radio station, Johor FM, a government-owned regional radio, and FMJB, another government-owned station covering only the city.
- Johor Bahru landmarks (businesses, buildings, places of worship, etc.)
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