Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
|Term of Office:||1922-1953|
|Date of Birth:||December 21, 1879|
|Place of Birth:||Gori, Georgia|
|Date of Death:||March 5, 1953|
|Place of Death:||Moscow, Russia|
|Political party:||Soviet Communist Party|
Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879 – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. Stalin became general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party in 1922; following the death of Vladimir Lenin, he prevailed over Leon Trotsky in a power struggle during the 1920s and brutally consolidated his authority with the Great Purge, a period of severe repression which reached its peak in 1937, remaining in power through World War II and until his death. Stalin molded the features that characterized the new Soviet regime; his policies, based on Marxist–Leninist ideology, are often considered to represent a political and economic system called Stalinism.
Under Stalin, who replaced the New Economic Policy (NEP) of the 1920s with five year plans (introduced in 1928) and collective farming, the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society to a major world industrial power by the end of the 1930s. However, Soviet agriculture, which had been exploited to finance the industrialization drive, continued to show poor returns throughout the decade. Collectivization had met widespread resistance, resulting in a bitter struggle of many peasants against the authorities. Meanwhile, Stalin argued that the ruling Communist Party's factionalism might weaken the Soviet Union in the face of foreign enemies. During the 1930s, he eliminated effective political opposition through a system of concentration camps (see Gulag) and executions, and by providing certain segments of the population benefits so as to win their support or co-opt them into the regime.
A hard-won victory in World War II (the Great Patriotic War, 1941–45), made possible in part through the capacity for production that was the outcome of industrialization, laid the groundwork for the formation of the Warsaw Pact and established the USSR as one of the two major world powers, a position it maintained for nearly four decades following Stalin's death in 1953. Nevertheless, future generations of Soviet leadership repudiated Stalinism; Stalin's successor as First Party Secretary, Nikita Khrushchev, denounced his use of mass repression and his "personality cult" in 1956..
- ^ page 133, Koba the Dread, ISBN 0786868767; page 354, Stalin: The Man and His Era, ISBN 0807070017, In a footnote he quotes the press announcement as speaking of her "sudden death"; he also cites pages 103–5 of his daughter's book, Twenty Letters to a Friend, the Russian edition, New York, 1967
- ^ Concerning Marxism in Linguistics, J.V. Stalin, Pravda, 1950-06-20 , available online as Marxism and Problems of Linguistics including other articles and letters published (also in Pravda) soon after on 1950-07-04 and 1950-08-02 .
- ^ Revisionists vs. Anti Soviets, Hugo S. Cunningham, 1999 & 2001, retrieved 2005-02-03 from http://www.cyberussr.com/rus/revision.html
- ^ Stalin, "Voprosy leninizma", 2nd ed., Moscow, p. 589 "Istoricheskij materializm", ed. by F. B. Konstantinov, Moscow 1951, p. 402; P. Calvert, "The Concept of Class", New York 1982, pp. 144–145
- Alan Bullock, Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives, HarperCollins, 1991, ISBN 0679729941
- Walter Laqueur, Stalin, Ediciones B, 2003, ISBN 8466613161
- Adam B. Ulam, Stalin : The Man and His Era, Beacon Press, 1987, ISBN 080707005X
- Simon Sebag Montefiore, Stalin: The court of the Red Tsar, Knopf, 2004, ISBN 1400042305
- Robert C. Tucker, Stalin as Revolutionary, 1879–1929, Norton, 1973, ISBN 039305487X
- Robert C. Tucker, Stalin in Power. The Revolution from Above, 1928–1941, Norton, 1990, ISBN 039302881X
- Chapter 1 of Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography Based on Explosive New Documents from Russia's Secret Archives by Edvard Radzinsky
- History of the Soviet Union
- 1936 Soviet Constitution
- Svetlana Alliluyeva (Stalin's daughter)
- Nadezhda Alliluyeva-Stalin (Stalin's second wife)
- Stalin Peace Prize
- Animal Farm (an allegory about the Russian Revolution and Stalinism, by George Orwell)
- Pharaoh (Stalin's favorite novel, by Boleslaw Prus).
- Stalin Library
- Another view of Stalin by Ludo Martens (at the website of the Progressive Labor Party)
- "The Revolution Betrayed" by Leon Trotsky
- An account of the Kirov Murder
- Death toll during Stalin's rule:estimates
- Modern History Sourcebook: Stalin's Reply to Churchill, 1946
- Modern History Sourcebook: Nikita S. Khrushchev: The Secret Speech — On the Cult of Personality, 1956
- The political economy of Stalinism: evidence from the Soviet secret archives / Paul R. Gregory
- Impressions of Soviet Russia, by John Dewey
- Stalin and the 'Cult of Personality'
- Stalin Biography from Spartacus Educational
- Crimes of Soviet Communists
- A book on Stalin
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