Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister
Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister of Lyme Regis OM PRS (April 5,1827 – February 10,1912) was a famous British surgeon who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. He came from a prosperous Quaker home in Upton, Essex, the son of the pioneer of the compound microscope Joseph Jackson Lister and Isabella Harris.
He attended the University of London, as this was one of only a few institutions which was approved by Quakers. He initially studied the Arts but at the age of 25 became a Bachelor of Medicine and entered the Royal College of Surgeons. In 1854, Lister became first assistant surgeon to James Syme (1799-1870), a leader of surgery in England. The two became close friends and Lister ended up marrying Syme's daughter Agnes, leaving the Quakers because his religion did not permit alliances with nonmembers.
After six years he got a professorship of surgery at Glasgow. At the time the usual explanation for wound infection was that the exposed tissues were damaged by chemicals in the air or via a stinking "miasma" in the air. The sick wards actually smelled bad, not due to a "miasma" but due to the rotting of wounds. Hospital wards were occasionally aired out at midday but Florence Nightingale's doctrine of fresh air was still science fiction then. Facilities for washing hands or the patient's wounds did not exist and it was even considered unnecessary for the surgeon to wash his hands before he saw a patient. This was strange because the work of Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis and Oliver Wendell Holmes were not heeded even though the parallel should have been obvious.
Lister became aware of a paper published by Louis Pasteur which showed that rotting and fermentation could occur without any oxygen if micro-organisms were present. Lister confirmed this with his own experiments. If micro-organisms were causing gangrene, the problem was how to get rid of them. Pasteur suggested three methods: to filter them out, to heat them up, or expose them to chemical solutions. The first two were inappropriate in a human wound so Lister experimented with the third.
Carbolic acid (phenol) had been in use as a means of deodorizing sewage, so Lister tested the results of spraying instruments, the surgical incisions, and dressings with a solution of it. Lister found that carbolic acid solution swabbed on wounds markedly reduced the incidence of gangrene and subsequently published a series of articles on the Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery describing this procedure on March 16 1867 in the journal The Lancet.
He also made surgeons wear clean gloves and wash their hands before and after operations with 5% carbolic acid solutions. Instruments were also washed in the same solution and assistants sprayed the solution in the operating theatre.
Many of his contemporaries laughed at him but Lister was said to have never bothered to reply and only heaved an occasional sigh at the world's stupidity. His critics still believed in the theory of spontaneous generation.
Lister left Glasgow in 1869 returning to Edinburgh as successor to Syme as Professor of Surgery,at Edinburgh University and continued to develop improved methods of antisepsis and asepsis,]. His fame had spread by then and audiences of 400 often came to hear him lecture. He moved to King's College in London and became the second man in England to operate on a brain tumor. He also developed a method of repairing kneecaps with metal wire and improved the technique of mastectomy. His discoveries were greatly praised and he was made Baron Lister of Lyme Regis and became one of the twelve original members of the Order of Merit.
In life Lister was said to be a shy, unassuming man, and deeply religious in his beliefs. Like many scientists, Lister was uninterested in social success or financial gain.
Lister retired from practice after his wife, who had long helped him in research, died in 1893 during one of the few vacations they allowed themselves. Studying and writing lost appeal for him and he sank into religious melancholy . Despite suffering a stroke, he still came into the public light from time to time. Edward VII came down with appendicitis two days before his coronation. The surgeons did not dare operate without consulting England's leading surgical authority. The king later told Lister "I know that if it had not been for you and your work, I wouldn't be sitting here today".
A British Institution of Preventive Medicine, previously named after Edward Jenner was renamed in 1899 in honour of Lister.
Two postage stamps were issued in September 1965 to honour Lister for his contributions to antiseptic surgery.
As the germ theory of disease became more widely accepted, it was realised that infection could be better avoided by preventing bacteria from getting into wounds in the first place. This led to the rise of sterile surgery. Some consider Lister the father of modern antisepsis.
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