Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Jumping is a skill that most humans and many animals share to some degree (the elephant being the only animal that cannot). It is simply the process of getting ones body off the ground for a short time without using anything but ones own power, usually by propelling oneself upward via contraction and then forceful extension of the legs. One can jump up to reach something high, jump over a fence or ditch, or jump down, and it can be done while dancing and as a sport.
In athletics (track and field), a number of events are mainly based on jumping:
- long jump, where the objective is to cover as large a horizontal distance as possible with one jump, preceded by a short run-up.
- fierljeppen, similar to the long jump, but using a pole to cover the distance.
- high jump, where the objective is to cover as large a vertical distance as possible with one jump, preceded by a short run-up.
- pole vault, in which is similar to the high jump, but competitors use a long flexible pole to cover a bigger height
- hurdling, a foot race where the track is covered with hurdles
- standing broad jump , similar to the long jump except that there is no run up at all; contestants jump forward after only sevral swings of the arms
- steeplechase, similar to hurdling, but the obstacles are more solid and diverse, and the distances to be covered are longer
- triple jump, which is similar to the long jump, but the final jump is preceded by a step and a hop (a step, but with the same foot as the previous one)
A number of sports with animals also involve jumping:
- Show jumping involves a rider jumping a sequence of fences with horses
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