Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, Anglicized as Juvenal, was a Roman satiric poet of the 1st century AD. Very little is known about his life, the ancient biographies being generally fictitious. He is known for coining the phrase "panem et circenses" ("bread and circuses") to describe the primary pursuits of the Roman populace. The rhetorical question "Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?", "Who shall guard the guardians?" comes from his Sixth Satire.
He was known to be from Aquinum, and described himself as middle-aged at the time of publication of his first satire, which was sometime in the 100s AD. The latest known date for his activity is 127. For a time he was very poor and was dependent on the rich people in Rome, and never became well known; the only known contemporary mention is in Martial.
His surviving work consists of 16 satires in hexameter.
Juvenal's "Satires" in Latin: Juvenal
Original Latin and English verse translation of Juvenal's "Third Satire": Juvenal
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