Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
|Abbreviations: 甘 or 陇 (pinyin: Gān or Lǒng)|
|Origin of Name|| 甘 g&#ān - Ganzhou (Zhangye ) |
肃 sù - Suzhou (Jiuquan)
| Capital and|
|CPC Gansu Committee Secretary||Su Rong|
|Area||454,000 km² (7th)|
| Population (2002) |
| 25,930,000 (22nd) |
| GDP (2002)|
- per capita
| 116.1 billion ¥ (27th) |
4479 ¥ (30th)
|Major Nationalities (2000)|| Han - 91%|
Hui - 5%
Dongxiang - 2%
Tibetan - 2%
Gansu () is a province located in the northwest of the People's Republic of China. It lies between Qinghai, Inner Mongolia, and the Huangtu Plateaus, and borders Mongolia to the north. The Huang He river passes the southern part of the province. It has a population of approximately 25 million (1997) and has a large concentration of Hui Chinese. The capital of the province is Lanzhou, located in the southeast part of Gansu.
Gansu is abbreviated Gan or Long (陇/隴), and is also known as Long West or Long Right, in reference to the Long Mountain east of Gansu.
There are 14 administrative areas in Gansu immediately below the province level: 12 prefecture-level cities and two autonomous prefectures:
- Baiyin City (白银 Báiyín)
- Dingxi City (定西 Dìngxī)
- Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (甘南藏族 : Gānnán Zāngzú)
- Jiayuguan City (嘉峪关 : Jiāyùguān)
- Jinchang City (金昌 : Jīnchāng)
- Jiuquan City (酒泉 : Jiǔquán)
- Lanzhou City (兰州 : Lánzhōu)
- Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture (临夏回族 : Línxià Huízú)
- Longnan City (陇南 : Lǒngnán)
- Pingliang City (平凉 : Píngliàng)
- Qingyang City (庆阳 : Qìngyáng)
- Tianshui City (天水 : Tiānshuǐ)
- Wuwei City (武威 : Wǔwēi)
- Zhangyi City (张掖 : Zhāngyì)
Gansu province has an area of 390,000 km², and the majority of its land is above 1 km over sea level. It lies between Qingzang, Inner Mongolia, and the Huangtu Plateaus, and borders Mongolia to the north. The Huang He river passes the southern part of the province.
Part of the Gobi Desert is located in Gansu.
The Yellow River (Huang He) gets most of its water from Gansu province. The Yellow River also flows straight thru Lanzhou.
The landscape in Gansu is very mountainous in the south and flat in the north. The mountains in the south are part of the Qilian mountain range. At 5,547 meters high, Qilian Shan Mountain is Gansu’s highest elevation. It is located at latitude 39°N and longitude 99°E.
Agricultural production includes cotton, linseed oil, maize, melons (the Bailan melon is well known in China), millet, and wheat. Gansu is known as a source for wild medicinal herbs which are used in Chinese medicine.
However, most of Gansu's economy is based on mining and the extraction of minerals, especially rare earth elements. The province has significant deposits of antimony, chromium, coal, cobalt, copper, fluorite, gypsum, iridium, iron, lead, limestone, mercury, mirabilite, nickel, crude oil, platinum, troilite , tungsten, and zinc, among others. The oil fields at Yumen and Changqing are considered significant.
According to some sources, the province is also a center of China's nuclear industry.
Gansu province is home to 26,033,400 people. Most of the population, 73%, is still rural. Gansu is 92% Han and also has Hui, Tibetan, Dingxiang, Tu, Manchu, Yugar, Bonan, Mongolian, Salar, and Kazakh minorities.
Within China, Gansu is known for its pulled noodles, and Muslim restaurants which feature authentic Gansu cusine are a common in most major Chinese cities.
Places of Interest:
The Jiayuguan Pass of the Great Wall
Jiayuguan Pass, in Jiayuguan city, is the largest and most intact pass, or entrance, of the Great Wall. Jiayuguan Pass was built in the late Ming dynasty, somewhere around the year 1372. It was built near an oasis that was then on the extreme western edge of China. Jiayuguan Pass was the first pass on the west end of the great wall so it earned the name “The First And Greatest Pass Under Heaven.” Legend goes that the official in charge asked the designer to calculate how many bricks would be used. The designer gave him the number and when the project was finished, only one brick was left. It was put on the top of the pass as a symbol of commemoration.
The Mogao Grottoes near Dunhuang represent an astonishing collection of Buddhist art and religion. Originally there were 1,000 grottoes, but now only 492 cave temples remain. Each temple has a large statue of a buddha or bodhisattva and paintings of religious scenes. In the year AD 336 a monk named Le Zun (Lo-tsun) came near Echoing Sand Mountain, when he had a vision of golden rays of light shining down on him like a thousand Buddhas. Le Zun started to carve the first grotto to memorize the incident. During the Five Dynasties period they ran out of room on the cliff and could not build anymore grottoes. Now they have started to find old paintings that were painted over in the Five Dynasties.
Silk Road And Dunhaung City
The historic Silk Road starts in Chang’an and goes to Constantinople. On the way merchants would go to Dunhaung in Gansu. In Dunhaung they would get fresh camels, food and guards for the journey around the dangerous Takla Makan shamo (desert). Before departing Dunhaung they would pray to the Mogao Grottoes for a safe journey, if they came back alive they would thank the gods at the grottoes. Across the desert they would form a train of camels to protect themselves from thieving bandits. The next stop, Kashi (Kashgar), was a welcome sight to the merchants. At Kashi most would trade and go back and the ones who stayed would eat fruit and trade their bactrian camels for single humped ones. After Kashi they would keep going until they reached their next destination.
The Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center is located in the Gobi desert in Gansu Province.
In August 1949, the provincial government overprinted the nondenominated stamps "locomotive" and "airmail arrow" stamps issued by the central government. These overprints were made by handstamping in purple, and are quite rare, valued at over US$500 each. Counterfeits are known, and apparent examples should be expertized.
Colleges and universities
- Lanzhou University (Lanzhou)
- 166,400 km² grassland
- 46,700 km² mountain slopes suitable for livestock breeding
- 46,200 km² forests (standing timber reserves of 0.2 km³)
- 35,300 km² cultivated land (1,400 m² per capita)
- 66,600 km² wasteland suitable for forestation
- 10,000 km² wasteland suitable for farming
- 455,000 km² total area
3,000 deposits of a 145 different minerals. 94 minerals have been found and ascertained, these include nickel, cobalt, platinum, selenium, casting clay, finishing serpentine, and five other minerals whose reserves are the largest in China. Gansu has advantages in getting nickel, zinc, cobalt, platinum, iridium, copper, barite, and baudisserite.
Among Gansu’s most important sources of energy are its water resources: the Yellow River and other inland river drainage basins. Gansu is placed ninth among China’s provinces in annual hydropower potential and water discharge. Gansu produces 17.24 gigawatts of hydropower a year. 29 hydropower stations have been constructed in Gansu. Each station capable of creating 30 gigawatts each. Gansu has an estimated coal reserve of 8.92 billion tons. The province also has an estimated 700 million tons of petroleum. Gansu also a very good potential for wind and solar power development.
Flora and Fauna
Gansu has 659 species of wild animals. Some of which are the giant panda, snub-nosed monkey, antelope, snow leopard, deer, fawn, musk deer, and bactrian which is a two humped camel. It also has 24 other rare animals which are under a state protection. Gansu is home to 441 species of birds.
Gansu province is second place in China for most medicinal plants and herbs, including some odd ones like hairy asiabell root, fritillary bulb, and Chinese caterpillar fungus.
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