Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
The Katipunan was a secret society founded in the Philippines by Andres Bonifacio aimed towards liberating the country from the Spanish colonizers. The name Katipunan is actually a shorter version of the official name, which is in Tagalog: Kataastaasang, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (roughly translated as The Highest and Most Respected Society of the Sons and Daughters of the Land). The Katipunan is also known by its acronym, KKK. (Not to be mistaken with the "Ku Klux Klan".)The word katipunan is a Tagalog term for society, the root word being the verb tipon, which means to gather.
Rizal and peaceful reforms
The Katipunan was founded after the arrest of the leading members of the La Liga Filipina, which was founded by Dr. Josť Rizal and of which Bonifacio himself was a member. La Liga, composed mainly of middle class intellectuals, advocated for peaceful reforms. The suppression of La Liga by the Spanish regime proved to Bonifacio the futility of peaceful reforms under Spanish rule. Armed revolution by the Katipunan started in August 1896, after the existence of the group was discovered by the authorities. The Spanish blamed Rizal, whom Katipunan regarded to be its honorary president, for the uprising and sentenced him to death by musketry on December 30, 1896. Rizal's martyrdom however added fuel to the rebellion, with the Katipuneros (Katipunan fighters) shouting "Mabuhay (long live) Dr. Josť Rizal" in battle.
Factions and Bonifacio
In the course of the revolution against Spain, a split developed between the Magdiwang faction (led by Gen. Mariano Alvarez and loyal to Bonifacio) and the Magdalo faction (led by Gen. Baldomero Aguinaldo, cousin of General Emilio Aguinaldo). At the Tejeros convention, Bonifacio lost his bid for the presidency of Katipunan and instead was elected Secretary of the Interior. When members of the Magdalo faction tried to discredit Bonifacio as uneducated and unfit for the position, Bonifacio declared the results of the convention as null and void. Bonifacio was later on arrested upon orders of Gen. Aguinaldo and executed on May 10, 1897.
At the Pact of Biak-na-Bato , Gen. Aguinaldo agreed with the Spanish Governor General to end the hostilities and went on self-exile in Hong Kong. The peace treaty soon collapsed and hostilities resumed. Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines at the outbreak of the Spanish-American War. Aguinaldo believed the United States to be an ally in the fight against the Spanish and declared Philippine independence from the Spanish on June 12, 1898. Suspicions that the United States actually had an imperialistic ambition was confirmed when Philippine representation was denied in the Treaty of Paris, through which the Philippines were ceded by Spain to the United States for 200,000 US dollars. Soon hostilities between Philippine and US forces began. The fighting ended after the capture of Aguinaldo in Palanan, Isabela. Aguinaldo called on all Katipunan forces to end the fighting. One Filipino general after another surrendered to the Americans. Other Katipunan generals continued to fight, notably Gen. Macario Sakay.
Members of the society are bound by utmost secrecy. The final initiation rights to become a member involve writing their name in their own blood in a book.
- Emilio Aguinaldo
- Andres Bonifacio
- Gergoria de Jesus
- Gregorio del Pilar
- Emilio Jacinto
- Mariano Llanera
- Antonio Luna
- Apolinario Mabini
- Miguel Malvar
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