Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Kedah (Jawi:قدح, pop. 1,650,000) is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The state covers a total area of 9,425 km², and consists mostly of flat areas growing rice, plus the island of Langkawi.
The state's capital and royal seat is Alor Star. Alor Star is declared as a city by Malaysia Former Prime Minister Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad in 2003. The Arabic honorific of Kedah is Darul Aman ("Abode of Peace").
Kedah has a long history; the Bujang Valley has remains of a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that dates back to the 4th century AD, making it the oldest civilization of Peninsular Malaysia. The kingdom fell under the domination of Sumatra and then Thailand.
The first sultan was Muzaffar Shah , who reigned from 1136 to 1179, and was followed by 27 others. At the end of the 18th century, the sultan at the time enlisted British assistance by ceding the island of Penang and then Province Wellesley, the coastal strip opposite the island, although Kedah was still captured by the Thais in 1821, who transferred control to the British in 1909 as part of the Bangkok Agreement .
Since 1958, the Sultan or hereditary monarch of Kedah has been Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah. The Chief Minister or Menteri Besar is currently Dato' Seri Syed Razak Syed Zain Barakbah of Barisan Nasional, a former schoolteacher.
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