Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
|Name|| ketorolac tromethamine|
|Systematic name|| (±)-5-benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-|
|Melting point||165-167° C (329-333°F)|
|Molecular weight (MW)||376.4|
|Bioavailability (extent)||100%, all doses and routes|
|Metabolism (%dose)|| < 50; excreted as conjugates and para-|
|Elimination (terminal plasma) half-life|| 3.5-9.2 hrs, young adults;|
4.7-8.6 hrs, elderly (mean age 72)
|Excretion||mean 91.4% urine, mean 6.1% fecal|
|Pregnancy category||USFDA Category C|
|Legal status|| legend drug (administration|
prohibited without prescription)
|Routes of administration|| PO (per os "by mouth"), 10 mg;|
IM (intramuscular, injected) 15, 30, 60 mg.
|Pediatrics|| Not established by testing;|
not recommended for pediatrics.
Ketorolac or ketorolac tromethamine (marketed as Toradol® - generics have been approved) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the family of propionic acids, often used as an analgesic, antipyretic (fever reducer), and anti-inflammatory. Ketorolac acts by inhibiting bodily synthesis of prostaglandins. Ketorolac in its oral and intramuscular preparations is a racemic mixture of R-(+)(which is the salt 1H-Pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid,5-benzoyl-2,3-dihydro- ketorolac) and S-(-) (which does not have the 1H-Pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid,5-benzoyl-2,3-dihydro group) ketorolac.
The brand name Toradol was coined by the Syntex company of the United States.
This article does not cover Acular ® or opthalmic ketorolac .
Ketorolac, like other 2-arylpropionate derivatives (including ketoprofen, flurbiprofen , naproxen, ibuprofen etc.) contains a chiral carbon in the β-position of the propionate moiety. As such there are two possible enantiomers of ketorolac with the potential for different biological effects and metabolism for each enantiomer.
NSAIDs are not recommended for use with other NSAIDs because of the potential for additive side effects.
The protein-binding effect of most non-aspirin NSAIDs is inhibited by the presence of aspirin in the blood.
Mechanism of action
The exact mechanism of action is not entirely known, but it is thought that the primary action responsible for its anti-inflammatory/antipyretic/analgesic effects is inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis through inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX). Ketorolac is not a selective inhibitor of COX enzymes, as are celecoxib (Celebrex®) and the discontinued rofecoxib (Vioxx®).
As with other NSAIDs, the mechanism of the drug is associated with the chiral S form. Conversion of the R enantiomer into the S enantiomer has been shown to occur in metabolism of ibuprofen; it is unknown whether it occurs in the metabolism of ketorolac.
Ketorolac is indicated for short-term management of pain (up to five days).
Ketorolac is contraindicated against patients with a previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to ketorolac, and against patients with the complete or partial syndrome of nasal polyps, angioedema, bronchospastic reactivity or other allergic manifestations to aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (due to possibility of severe anaphylaxis).
Similar to other NSAIDs. See inset "Ketorolac adverse effects."
|Ketorolac adverse effects.|
|General.||Edema. Less frequently, hypersensitivity reactions (such as anaphylaxis, bronchospasm, laryngeal edema, tongue edema, hypotension), flushing, weight gain, or fever. Very infrequently, asthenia.|
|Cardiovascular.||Hypertension. Less frequently, palpitation, pallor, or syncope.|
|Dermatologic.||Rash or pruritus. Less frequently, Lyell's syndrome, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, musculo-papular rash , exfoliative dermatitis , or urticaria.|
|Gastrointestinal.||Nausea, dyspepsia, gastrointestinal pain, constipation, diarrhea, flatulence, gastrointestinal fullness, vomiting or stomatitis . Less frequently, peptic ulceration , gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gastrointestinal perforation, melena, rectal bleeding, gastritis, eructation, anorexia, or increased appetite. Very infrequently, pancreatitis.|
|Hemic and lymphatic.||Purpura. Less frequently, postoperative wound hemorrhage, thrombocytopenia, epistaxis, or anemia. Very infrequently, leukopenia or eosinophilia.|
|Neurological.||Drowsiness , dizziness, headache, sweating, injection site pain. Less frequently convulsions, vertigo, tremors, abnormal dreams, hallucinations, or euphoria. Very infrequently, paresthesia, depression, insomnia, inability to concentrate, nervousness , excessive thirst, dry mouth, abnormal thinking, hyperkinesis, or stupor .|
|Respiratory.||Less frequently, dyspnea, asthma and pulmonary edema. Very infrequently, rhinitis or cough.|
|Urogenital.||Less frequently, acute renal failure. Very infrequently polyuria or increased urinary frequncy.|
Warnings and precautions
The most serious risks associated with ketorolac are, as with other NSAIDs, gastrointestinal ulcerations, bleeding and perforation; renal events ranging from interstitial nephritis to complete renal failure; hemorhage, and hypersensitivity reactions.
As with other NSAIDs, fluid and solute retention and edema have been reported with ketorolac; ketorolac elevated liver protein levels; it also inhibits platelet aggrgation and may be associated with an increased risk of bleeding.
Ketorolac is not reccomended for obstetric analgesia because it has not been adequately tested for obstetrical administration and has demonstrable fetal toxicity in laboratory animals.
Ketorolac is not recommended for long-term chronic pain patients.
Dosage, availability and price
Oral dosage is 10 mg; price for 30 tablets hovers around US$25.
Injected dosages are 15, 30 and 60 mg; price for 10 vials of 30 mg each is around US$45, making the intramuscular preparation considerably more expensive per dose. One 60-mg dose would require the administration by injection of two vials, at about $9 per dose
Handley, D.A., P. Carvoni, J.E. McCray, J.R. McCullough (1998). "Preclinical Enantioselective Pharmacology of (R)- and (S)- Ketorolac.", J Clin Pharmacol 38, 25-35.
1993. Physicians' Desk Reference, Forty-seventh edition. Montvale, N.J., Medical Economics Co. Inc., 2411-2415.
None as yet.
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