Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
- This article is about the city in Germany. There is also Kiel, Wisconsin in the United States of America.
Kiel [kiːl], with a population 233,795, (113,274 male, 120,521 female) is a city in northern Germany, capital of the Schleswig-Holstein Bundesland. Located at the Baltic Sea, the city has been one the country's main naval bases since the 1860s.
Kiel was largely destroyed in the Second World War. It was rebuilt, but the city-planners failed to revive the former townscape; Kiel was less meticulously restored than other Schleswig-Holsteinian towns like Lübeck or Schleswig. Sights in Kiel include the Nikolaikirche (Saint Nikolai, 14th/15th century), the Schloss (Castle, 16th century, but destroyed and rebuilt in the 20th century), and the Rathaus (town hall, 1911). Outside Kiel, there are beautiful seaside resorts as Möltenort or Laboe. In Möltenort, at the smallest part of the Kieler Förde (Kiel fjord), the submarine monument is erected. Kiel is the eastern terminus of the Kiel Canal.
Kiel is famous for sailing events. Every year the "Kieler Woche" is held (the first time in 1882), a series of sailing regattas with a cultural framework. In 1936 and 1972, when the Olympic Games were held in Berlin and Munich, respectively, the Olympic yachting competitions were held in Kiel.
Kiel was originally founded in 1233 as tom Kyle by Count Adolf IV of Schauenburg , and granted town rights (Lübisches Stadtrecht) in 1242 by Adolf's eldest son, Johann I . Kiel was a member of the Hanse from 1284 on until it was evicted 1518, and in 1431, the Kieler Umschlag was first held, which became the central market for goods and money in Schleswig-Holstein later on until it began to lose significance from 1850 on, finally being held the last time in 1900. Kiel's university, the Christian-Albrechts-Universität, was founded on September 29 1665 by Christian Albrecht , duke of Gottorf .
After the Second war of Schleswig in 1864, it was conquered by an alliance of Austria and the Kingdom of Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. Kiel was annexed by Prussia in 1867. After the constitution of Imperial Germany, Kiel was appointed "Imperial War Harbour" (Reichskriegshafen) by Wilhelm I of Germany, and quickly rose in size in the following years, from 18,770 in 1864 to about 200,000 in 1910, a development which brought with it the destruction of parts of the old town center and its surroundings. Later on, during World War II, another 80% of the remaining old town, as well as 72% of all residential and 83% of all industrial areas, was destroyed by allied bomb attacks.
In 1946, Kiel was named the seat of government of Schleswig-Holstein, and it officially became the state's capital in 1972. The Kieler Umschlag has been held again yearly since 1975, now as a festival with music and food stalls, historical costumes, special bread and a wedding, the Umschlagshochzeit, for which every young bride and groom can apply.
Buildings and Constructions
- Eric Braeden (actor, emigrated to the United States at age 19)
- Georg Landsberg (mathematician)
- Carl Loewe (composer)
- Peter III of Russia (tsar of Russia)
- Max Planck (physicist)
- Ernst Steinitz (mathematician)
- Carl Zuckmayer (writer and playwright)
Important historic mayors and lord mayors of Kiel
- 1688 - 1720: Asmus Bremer
- 1730 - 1732: Ernst Joachim von Westphalen
- 1920 - 1933: Emil Lueken (removed from office by the Nazis)
Lord mayors after World War II
- 1946 - 1954: Andreas Gayk (SPD)
- 1954 - 1965: Hans Müthling (SPD)
- 1965 - 1980: Günther Bantzer (SPD)
- 1980 - 1994: Karl-Heinz Luckhardt (SPD)
- 1994 - 1997: Otto Kelling (SPD)
- 1997 - 2003: Norbert Gansel (SPD)
- 2003 - today: Angelika Volquartz (CDU)
- Brest, France (1964)
- Coventry, UK (1967)
- Vaasa, Finland (1967)
- Gdynia, Poland (1985)
- Tallinn, Estonia (1986 at this time Soviet Union)
- Stralsund, Germany (1987 at this time German Democratic Republic)
- Kaliningrad, Russia (1992)
- Sovetsk, Russia (1992)
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