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Mongol term, also khuriltai, signifying a tribal assembly, convened to determine military campaigns and problems of leadership.
The kuriltai, however, required the presence of the senior members of the tribes participating, who were also in charge militarily. Thus, the deaths of Ögedei and Möngke in 1241 and 1259, respectively, necessitated the withdrawal of Mongol leaders (and troops) from the outskirts of Vienna (in 1241) and Egypt (in 1259), hamstringing military operations against the Austrians and Mamluks that might not otherwise have failed.
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