Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
It is located near the river Ravi and the Indian border. Lahore has 6.5 million inhabitants and thus is the second largest city in Pakistan (Karachi being the largest). It is considered to be the 23rd largest city of the world. Punjabi is the language of the province, and is the most widely spoken language in Lahore. Punjabi spoken by the people of lahore is known as 'lahori punjabi' due to a mixture of punjabi and causual/slang urdu spoken in lahore.
2.1 Roshnai Gate area
The city came under Muslim rule due to the raids of Mahmud of Ghazna. When Qutb-ud-din Aybak was crowned in 1206 here, he became the first Muslim Sultan of the subcontinent. From 1524 to 1752 Lahore was part of the Mughal Empire.
During Akbar's rule, Lahore was the capital of the empire from 1584 to 1598. During this time a massive fort, the Lahore Fort, was built on the fundaments of an older fort in the 1560s. This fort was later extended by Jahangir and Shah Jahan.
The last of the Mughals, Aurangzeb, ruling from 1658 to 1707, built the city's most famous monuments, the Badshahi Masjid and the Alamgiri Gate to the Lahore Fort. The Sikhs ruled it in the 18th and 19th centuries, making Lahore the capital of sovereign Punjab. However the last bloody anglo-sikh war resulted in very narrow British victory thus bringing Lahore was under the rule of the British crown. Until it was partitioned into the newly formed Pakistan in 1947.
Sites of interest
Roshnai Gate area
The Badshahi Masjid, one of the world's largest mosques, is located just outside the Northeast corner of the Walled City. Opposite is the historic Lahore Fort which houses the famous Sheesh Mahal. Between the two buildings is a garden known as Hazuri Bagh in which Maharaja Ranjit Singh built a baradari, a decorated marble pavilion. Every Sunday afternoon story-tellers, poets and singers gather in the garden to continue their oral tradition, often reciting Waris Shah's Heer, Bulleh Shah, Farid Ganjshakar or other Punjabi literature.
The Southern side of Hazuri Bagh is bounded by the wall of the Walled City, with the Roshnai Gate serving as an entrance. Roshnai Gate leads into the Shahi Mohalla quarter of the Walled City, also known as Hira Mandi. Although Shahi Mohalla is notorious for being the red-light district of Lahore, it also offers a large variety of traditional food, including the famous Phajje ke Paye.
Masti Gate area
Just behind the Lahore Fort is the Masti Gate entrance. This area is dominated by wholesale shoesellers, or both traditional and Western style shoes. Further down the street is located one of the cities oldest mosques, the Mosque of Mariyam Zamani , named after the mother of Jahangir.
Bhati Gate area
The Bhati Gate entrance is located on the Western wall of the Old City. The area inside the gate serves is well known throughout the city for its food. Just outside of Bhati Gate is Data Durbar, the mausoleum of the Sufi saint Ali Hajweri (also known as Data Sahib Ganjbaksh). Every Thursday evening musicians gather here to perform Qawwali music.
Delhi Gate area
Inside the gate on the left hand side is located the Shahi Hammam , or "Royal Baths". Further down the bazaar, one will find the beautiful Wazir Khan Mosque, named after a viceroy of the Punjab during the reign of Shah Jahan. Further inwards, the road leads towards the Sonehri Masjid .
Railway Station area
Lahore Railway Station, Dai Anga Mosque , Landa Bazaar
Tomb of Anarkali
Tomb of Lal Hussain , Mela Chiraghan , Shalimar Gardens
Tomb of Jahangir , Tomb of Noor Jehan
The mausoleum of Bibi Pak Daman
- Government College University
- Lahore College for Women University
- Lahore University of Management Sciences
- University of Lahore
- University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore
- University of the Punjab
- National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences (formerly FAST)
Economy and business
Infrastructure and development
The recent road building programme has improved accessibility. A motorway was completed in 2000, linking Lahore to Islamabad, the capital. The Airport has been renovated and renamed as Allama Iqbal International Airport.
Lahore's most famous tech-bazaar is the Hafeez Center , located on the Gulberg Main Boulevard and Electronics Market at Hall Road.
While Lahore has a great many traditional and modern restaurants, the turn of the century has seen the appearance of western restaurant chains such as McDonald's and Kentucky Fried Chicken in the new shopping centres all over the city. A major tourist attraction in Lahore is the famous Food Street in the old historic district of Gawaalmandi. Gawalmaandi had almost legendary status as the placeto go for the authentic Lahori cuisine. Food street has been a massive restoration project in which Gawaalmandi was cordoned off and a street cafe was established under the lights of the restored havelis of yesteryear.
Banks Bank Alfalah, UBL(United Bank Limited), ABL(Allied band limited), Habib Bank Ltd, Habib Bank AG, Zurich, Bank of Punjab, Soneri Bank, Citibank, Cresecent Bank, Standard Chartered, Grindley's, National Bank of Pakistan, State Bank of Pakistan
Adamjee Insurance, State Life
Saudi Pak Leasing Company
Stock Exchange The Lahore Stock Exchange is located on Mall Road near the Holiday Inn and Awan-e-Iqbal. The system is totally computerised and the majority of the companies listed are producing textile goods.
Industry and Manufacturing
Lahore is famous as the hub of handmade carpet manufacturing in Pakistan. At present, hand-knotted carpets produced in and around Lahore are among Pakistan's leading export products and their manufacture is the second largest cottage and small industry. Craftsmen in Lahore have the capacity to produce any type of carpet using all the popular motifs: gulls, medallions, paisleys, traceries, and geometric designs in various combinations. However, the new Institute of Carpet Designing and Weaving has been established in Bahawalpur to train teachers. The Lahore Design Centre at the Punjab Small Industries Corporation maintains a separate section of carpet designing to experiment with new designs.
Ninety-five percent of the carpets are produced for export and Turkoman, Persian and Caucasian designs are crafted since they meet the popular taste abroad. Lahore is famous for single-wefted designs in Turkoman and Caucasian style, and double-wefted Mughal types (commonly referred as Pak Persian).
To read more about the arts of Punjab (with a focus on Lahore in particular), visit this page on the Government of Pakistan's web site.
- Architecture of Lahore
- Mosques of Lahore
- Churches of Lahore
- Homes of Lahore
- Billboards of Lahore
- The Lahore Zoo
- Iqbal town
- List of cities in Pakistan
- Demographics of Pakistan
- List of capitals of subnational entities
- List of metropolitan areas by population
- Punjab, Pakistan
- Images of Lahore
- Lahore City Government
- Lahore Bazaar
- itsPakistan - About Pakistan - Lahore City
- Photographs from undroon shehr (the walled city) of Lahore
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