Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Lawrence is a city located in Douglas County, Kansas. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 80,098. Lawrence is the county seat of Douglas County, and is the home of the University of Kansas and Haskell Indian Nations University. Lawrence is located in northeast Kansas, on the Kansas River, and southwest of Kansas City. The city was founded in 1851 for the New England Emigrant Aid Company by Charles Robinson, and named after Amos Adams Lawrence, the son of famed philanthropist Amos Lawrence.
In the Civil War era, Lawrence was a center of anti-slavery sentiment. On May 21, 1856, a pro-slavery posse led by Sheriff Samuel J. Jones burned the Free-State Hotel, destroyed the equipment of two anti-slavery newspapers, and looted several other businesses. No loss of life was recorded (see Sacking of Lawrence). On August 21, 1863, however, pro-slavery forces led by William Quantrill burned most of the homes and businesses in Lawrence, and killed 150-200 of the men they found in Lawrence (see Lawrence Massacre).
The University of Kansas was founded in Lawrence in 1866, by the citizens of Lawrence, under a charter granted by the Kansas Legislature, with the donation of 40 acres (160,000 m²) of land on Mount Oread by former Kansas Governor Charles Robinson and his wife Sara and small monetary gift from Amos Adams Lawrence. As a college town, Lawrence is known for its liberal philosophy and unique culture.
Lawrence is located at 38°57'36" North, 95°15'12" West (38.959902, -95.253199).
As of the census2 of 2000, there are 80,098 people, 31,388 households, and 15,725 families residing in the city. The population density is 1,100.2/km² (2,849.4/mi²). There are 32,761 housing units at an average density of 450.0/km² (1,165.4/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 83.80% White, 5.09% African American, 2.93% Native American, 3.78% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.36% from other races, and 2.97% from two or more races. 3.65% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 31,388 households out of which 25.1% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.0% are married couples living together, 8.7% have a female householder with no husband present, and 49.9% are non-families. 30.6% of all households are made up of individuals and 5.6% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.30 and the average family size is 2.93.
In the city the population is spread out with 18.6% under the age of 18, 30.7% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 15.1% from 45 to 64, and 7.2% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 25 years. For every 100 females there are 98.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 98.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $34,669, and the median income for a family is $51,545. Males have a median income of $33,481 versus $27,436 for females. The per capita income for the city is $19,378. 18.9% of the population and 7.3% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 10.6% of those under the age of 18 and 7.7% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
Sites of Interest
Downtown Lawrence, in particular Massachusetts Street, has a lively atmosphere and is filled with restaurants, galleries, shops, and music venues.
The University of Kansas campus is home to many museums, including the KU Natural History Museum  and the Spencer Museum of Art . The Robert J. Dole institute of politics houses various artifacts from the life of the former Kansas Senator.
Clinton Lake is located approximately three miles southwest of Lawrence and has areas for boating, swimming, fishing, and hunting.
There are a variety of mountain biking venues, including the trails at Clinton Lake, and the river trails by the Kansas River.
Politics and Culture
While Kansas may be one of the reddest red states in America, Lawrence is a tiny island of blue. Douglas County, where Lawrence is located, was one of only two counties in Kansas to vote for the Democratic candidate in the past four presidential elections. Culturally, Lawrence seems more similar to other famously-liberal college towns such as Berkeley, California and Madison, Wisconsin than the rest of her home state, featuring such staples of college-town liberalism as a socialist bookstore, two microbreweries, a half-dozen locally owned coffeehouses, and a law protecting gay people from discrimination. The city is known for a thriving music and art scene; the New York Times called Lawrence "the most vital music scene between Chicago and Denver" in an travel column on February 25, 2005. Lawrence is also the hometown of such luminaries as Langston Hughes and William Burroughs.
Lawrence's culture isn't just political activism and the arts; the town is famous for the University of Kansas's athletic teams as well. The highly-ranked Kansas Jayhawks basketball team becomes the town's obsession during the winter, and the football team occasionally qualifies for a bowl game.
- City of Lawrence
- Lawrence Visitors Bureau
- Clinton Lake
- Lawrence Journal-World (Lawrence's daily newspaper)
- Lawrence.com (music, nightlife, events calendar)
- Lawrence Chamber of Commerce
University of Kansas
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