Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Manufacturing products of the city include electronic equipment, textiles, footwear, paper products, computers, and foodstuffs. Lawrence was, for a while, the residence of American poet Robert Frost, and was where he published his first poem.
Europeans first settled in the area in 1640. The site of the city was purchased in 1845 by a group of Boston industrialists headed by the businessman and congressman Abbott Lawrence, the community's namesake. The city was incorporated in 1853. The industrialists intended to establish textile mills near a source of abundant waterpower. However, working conditions in the factories were unsafe and in 1860 a factory collapsed and killed 88 workers. In 1912 the so-called Bread and Roses strike, one of the major labor actions of American history, began when textile-mill owners increased the speed of factory looms and lowered wages for thousands of women and child workers. The state's National Guard and private and city police were sent in against 23,000 strikers for two months, resulting in numerous deaths and mass arrests. When police and militia assaulted a group of women and children, public outcry helped force mill owners to capitulate. The striking workers won wage increases for themselves and thousands of workers in New England mills. Lawrence was a great wool-processing center until that industry declined in the 1950s.
Lawrence is located at 42°42'13" North, 71°9'47" West (42.703741, -71.162979)1.
As of the census2 of 2000, there are 72,043 people, 24,463 households, and 16,903 families residing in the city. The population density is 3,996.5/km² (10,351.4/mi²). There are 25,601 housing units at an average density of 1,420.2/km² (3,678.4/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 48.64% White, 4.88% African American, 0.81% Native American, 2.65% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 36.67% from other races, and 6.25% from two or more races. 59.71% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 24,463 households out of which 41.4% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.6% are married couples living together, 25.7% have a female householder with no husband present, and 30.9% are non-families. 25.5% of all households are made up of individuals and 10.0% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.90 and the average family size is 3.46.
In the city the population is spread out with 32.0% under the age of 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 16.7% from 45 to 64, and 9.8% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 30 years. For every 100 females there are 91.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 86.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $27,983, and the median income for a family is $31,809. Males have a median income of $27,772 versus $23,137 for females. The per capita income for the city is $13,360. 24.3% of the population and 21.2% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 31.7% of those under the age of 18 and 20.1% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
* Northern Essex Community College
* Central Catholic * Lawrence High
* St. Patrick's School
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