Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Laws of cricket
The Marylebone Cricket Club is the framer of the Laws of Cricket, the rules governing play of the game. The Laws are intended to apply to all two innings matches; the International Cricket Council has implemented "Standard Playing Conditions for Test Matches" and "Standard Playing Conditions for One Day Internationals" to augment the Laws of Cricket. Similarly, each cricketing country has implemented Playing Conditions to govern domestic cricket. Note that the Laws do not provide for One Day or Limited Overs cricket; these modifications have been made by the Playing Conditions for One Day Internationals.
The Laws are organised into a Preface, a Preamble, forty-two Laws, and four appendices. The Preface relates to the Marylebone Cricket Club and the history of the Laws. The Preamble is a new addition and is related to "the Spirit of the Game;" it was introduced to discourage the increasing practices of ungentlemanly conduct. The Laws themselves deal with the following:
- Law 1: The players
- Law 2: Substitutes
- Law 3: The umpires
- Law 4: The scorers
- Law 5: The ball
- Law 6: The bat
- Law 7: The pitch
- Law 8: The wickets
- Law 9: Bowling, popping, and return creases
- Law 10: Preparation and maintenance of the playing area
- Law 11: Covering the pitch
- Law 12: Innings
- Law 13: The follow-on
- Law 14: Declaration and forfeiture
- Law 15: Intervals
- Law 16: Start of play; cessation of play
- Law 17: Practice on the field
- Law 18: Scoring runs
- Law 19: Boundaries
- Law 20: Lost ball
- Law 21: The result
- Law 22: The over
- Law 23: Dead ball
- Law 24: No ball
- Law 25: Wide ball
- Law 26: Bye and leg bye
- Law 27: Appeals
- Law 28: The wicket is down
- Law 29: Batsman out of his ground
- Law 30: Bowled
- Law 31: Timed out
- Law 32: Caught
- Law 33: Handled the ball
- Law 34: Hit the ball twice
- Law 35: Hit wicket
- Law 36: Leg before wicket
- Law 37: Obstructing the field
- Law 38: Run out
- Law 39: Stumped
- Law 40: The wicket-keeper
- Law 41: The fielder
- Law 42: Fair and unfair play
The four appendices to the laws are as follows:
- Appendix A: Specifications and diagrams of stumps and bails
- Appendix B: Specifications and diagrams of the pitch and creases
- Appendix C: Specifications and diagrams of gloves
- Appendix D: Definitions
History of the laws
Historically, the laws have always (since 1774) governed:
- Decision of who bats first: This has not changed much and has always been decided by the toss of a coin.
- Dimensions of the pitch and location of popping crease.
- Length of stumps and bails
- Weight of cricket ball
- Balls per over
- No ball rule (illegal delivery)
- Rules of dismissal of batsman
- Time allowed for next batsman to come in after a dismissal
They were first printed in book form in 1775. The laws have changed a lot since then but the basic form of the game remains the same.
Important Historical changes to the laws
- The earliest known Code was drawn up by certain "Noblemen and Gentlemen" who used the Artillery Ground in London.
- The Laws were revised by "Several Cricket Clubs, particularly the Star and Garter in Pall Mall".
- Revision of the Laws by "a Committee of Noblemen and Gentlemen of Kent, Hampshire, Surrey, Sussex, Middlesex and London at the Star and Garter".
- A further revision was undertaken by a similar body of Noblemen and Gentlemen of Kent, Hampshire, Surrey, Sussex, Middlesex and London.
- The first Code of Laws produced by the Marylebone Cricket Club was adopted on 30 May.
- Weight of ball further standardised from between 5 and 6 ounces (142 to 170 g) to between 5.5 and 5.75 ounces (156 to 163 g).
- Width of cricket bat standardised for the first time.
- Length of stumps increased from 22 to 24 inches and bails from 6 to 7 inches.
- Leg before wicket rule introduced.
- Importance of umpires further enhanced.
- Length of stumps increased from 24 inches to 27 inches (559 to 686 mm) and bails from 7 inches to 8 inches (178 to 203 mm). Thickness of stumps mentioned for first time.
- "Throwing" mentioned for first time.
- A new Code of Laws was approved by the MCC Committee on 19 May.
- Overarm bowling permitted for the first time.
- New version of Laws approved at the MCC on 21 April
- Number of players formalised for the first time (eleven).
- Follow-on rule introduced.
- Size of ball formalised for first time.
- Length of an over increased from four balls to five balls.
- Length of an over increased to six balls.
- Variation allowed in the length of the over (Australian overs to be eight balls).
- A new Code was approved by the MCC on 7 May
- Length of an over to be six or eight balls according to "prior agreement" between the captains
- After a number of minor revisions of the 1947 Code, a new Code was approved at an MCC Special General Meeting on 21 November. This is known as the 1980 code. Imperial units now followed by metric units.
- A second edition of the 1980 Code was produced.
- A new Code, which for the first time included a Preamble defining the Spirit of Cricket was approved on 3 May. The code was rewritten into plain English and is more discursive than previous Codes.
- Length of an over standardised at six balls for all matches.
- Umpires allowed to award penalty runs for unfair play.
- A second version of the 2000 Code was produced incorporating necessary amendments arising from the application of the 2000 Code.
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