Science Fair Project Encyclopedia
Location and administrative status
Legionowo is located ca. 23 km to the north-east of center of Warsaw and only 7 km to the south from Zegrzyński Lake (Polish: Jezioro Zegrzyńskie or Zalew Zegrzyński), near the Warszawa-Gdańsk railroad line and Warszawa-Suwałki road. City area is 1360ha (13.6 sq km), which makes population density at 3.66 persons/sq km. Ground level: 75-85 m above sea level.
Situated in the Masovian Voivodship (Polish: województwo mazowieckie, created in 1999 as a result of Local Government Reorganization Act), previously in Warszawa Voivodship (Polish: województwo warszawskie or województwo stołeczne warszawskie, 1975-1998) and old Masovian Voivodship (before 1975). Currently this is a capital of Legionowo County (Polish: powiat legionowski), which is one of 38 land counties (Polish: powiat ziemski) in Masovian Voivodship.
- Wyższa Szkoła Ekonomiczno-Techniczna
- Legionowo's history dates back to 1877, when the railroad station Jabłonna Nowa (New Jabłonna) was built. The name comes from Jabłonna , the nearby village, where in 1774-1779 Bishop Michał Poniatowski (brother of Poland's last king, Stanisław Poniatowski) built his palace (currently visiting house for Polish Academy of Sciences).
- In 1892 near the railroad station the Russian army barracks (koszary carskie) were built (this was called Obóz Hurki in Polish) and the local garrison of Russian army had stationed, as a part of Warsaw Stronghold Region (Polish: Warszawski Rejon Umocniony), there until the end of World War I (about 1917).
- In 1919, Jabłonna Nowa was renamed to Legionowo to honour Polish Legions (Legiony Polskie) led by Józef Piłsudski.
- Ca. 1920 Institute of Aerology (currently Aerology Centre within Institute of Meteorology and Water Administration, Polish: Ośrodek Aerologii Instytutu Meteorologii i Gospodarki Wodnej) was opened.
- During Battle for Warsaw (Polish: Bitwa o Warszawę) in August 1920, from barracks in Legionowo, General Żeligowski led the 10th Infantry Division (Polish: 10. Dywizja Piechoty) to Radzymin , which helped to save Waszawa from Soviet aggressors.
- After 1925, Legionowo became a summer resort for citizens of Warsaw, as by that time, whole area was covered by woods and free of pollution.
- After World War I and World War II Legionowo became world famous with its "Aviotex" balloon and parachute factory, which also produced tents and other camping equipment (e.g. sleeping bags).
- Between World War I and World War II, narrow-gauge railroad line connected Legionowo with Warszawa, going through Jabłonna .
- In 1930 Legionowo became a commune (Polish: gmina).
- During World War II a ward of Stalag 368 (German: Stammlager, prison camp for lower officers and soldiers) in Beniaminowo and a ghetto were located in Legionowo.
- During World War II, in 1944, Legionowo took part of Powstanie Warszawskie, as so called District 7: Collar (Obwód 7: Obroża). During first week of August 1944, Legionowo was a place of regular fights between German troops and Polish rebels. After one week or so, Germans put down the rising and several Poles where executed in one of military shelters near railroad line.
- After World War II there was a brick factory (Polish: cegielnia), now nonexistent.
- In 1952, Legionowo is given a city rights (Polish: prawa miejskie).
- In 1950s the normal-gauged railroad line was electrified.
- In late 1960s, narrow-gauge railroad line was closed and in early 1970s the tracks were removed. The final station and depot remain until current day (as private buildings).
- In 1960s first 4-storeyed blocks of flats were built. In 1970s and 1980s, three large groups of blocks of flats (4-storeyed and 11-storeyed) were built.
- In 1977 a tin ware factory "Bistyp" was opened. Currently this factory holds ISO-9002 Quality Certificate.
- In early 1980s, house factory was built near Legionowo, which made prefabricated elements for blocks of flats built in region. Now, the factory is closed.
- In 1990s Police Academy (Polish: Centrum Szkolenia Policji), one of two such high schools in Poland was opened.
- After big flood in southern parts of Poland in 1997, Aerology Institute was equipped with Doppler meteorological radar, able to scan about 1/5 of Poland's area for storm and rain clouds. Now in part of SMOK (The Hydrological and Meteorological Monitoring Forecasting and Protection System, Polish: System Monitoringu i Osłony Kraju).
Places worth seeing
- Russian army barracks, made of red Russian (larger than Polish ones) bricks
- Wooden summer resort houses, some of them left in center of Legionowo
- St. Josef's Church (Kościół Św. Józefa, Kościół Garnizonowy) built in 1945
- Holy Spirit's Church (Kościół Św. Ducha) built in years 1979-1985 in place of old wooden one.
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